This is a map showing where the Battle of Monte Cassino took place between the Allied and Axis powers. This battle was the most bloodiest battles in Italy. The goal of this battle was for the Allie powers to break into the axis powers to break them apart so they weren't as good as they were in Rome. This battle consisted of four assaults from the allies against the winter line in Italy.
The Battle of Monte Cassino took place in the air so it was an air battle.
One of the Commanders in this was Władysław Albert Anders. (11 August 1892 – 12 May 1970) He was a general in the Polish Army and later in life a politician and prominent member of the Polish government-in-exile in London.
Another one of these commanders was Albert Kesselring (30 November 1885 – 16 July 1960). He was a German Field Marshall.
The Battle started Jan 17, 1944 and went till May 19, 1944. The Result of this Battle was Allied victory because they were able to break into the axis powers for the victory. The Battle of Monte Cassino was a series of assaults on the Winter Line, a defensive line in Italy based on several mountain ridges and valleys. between 17 January to 16 May, the line was assaulted four times by the Allies, chief among them Britain, America, Free French, Canada, Royalist Italy and Poland, pitting them against German and Fascist Italy, within in the capture of Rome.
This was one of the defining moments on the Italian front. There were more Italian defensive lines, but none nearly as strong as the Winter Line. From now on Axis policy in Italy was not one of holding, but one of delaying, dragging on the war there and giving ground if needed to support the other more important fronts in the East and the West (D-Day occurred just a few weeks after this battle). D-Day was the Normandy landings were the landing operations on Tuesday, 6 June 1944 of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II.
Troop wise it was far more costly for the Allies than the Axis. The Allies sent in 240,000 men, of which 55,000 were wounded severely or killed. The Axis sent in 140,000 men, of which 20,000 were wounded severely or killed. But while the Allies still had large reserves to replace these men, including new Royalist Italy formations and American reserves in Northern Africa, the Germans were frantically pulling out men from the Italian front in a vain attempt to contain D-Day, to halt the massive Crimean Offensive and Operation Bagration, and to replenish their Balkan garrisons, depleted after their latest battle with the Yugoslavian partisans.
This also had a significant effect on morale. Roosevelt himself famously declared “One down, two to go!” (Berlin and Tokyo). The ranks of Royalist Italy swelled as men hurried to volunteer and many Fascist Italy troops deserted. Many on both sides began to see the cause of Fascist Italy as a foregone one, and Germany began to withdraw significant civil support, although keeping her military support intact.
Fact; Pope Pius XII said nothing after the bombing. Cardinal Secretary of State called the bombing “stupidity.”
Fact; It is now known that the Germans had agreed not to use the Abbey for military purposes.
Fact; Following its destruction, paratroopers of the German 1st Parachute Division occupied the ruins of the abbey. They turned it into a fortress and observation post.
Below are a few photos of this battle: