Hasty Generalization- generalization based on insufficient or unrepresented evidence.
“Three congressional representatives have had affairs. Therefore, members of Congree are adulterers”.
“An environmental group illegally blocked loggers and workers at a nuclear plant. Therefore, environmentalists are radicals who take the law into their own hands.” http://grammar.about.com/od/fh/g/hastygenterm.htm
False Analogy- assumption that because 2 things are alike in some ways, they are alike in others.
“Historically, public schools have done very well, so the problems of public schools today-lack of achievement, lack of discipline - are due to ineffective teachers. “
“The private school down the street has better teachers and children get a better education because 100% of their seniors get into a college." http://www.softschools.com/examples/grammar/false_analogy_examples/178
Either or fallacy- suggestion that only 2 alternatives exist when there are in fact more.
President Bush: "Either you are with us or you are with the terrorists."
Anakin Skywalker: If you're not with me, you're my enemy.
Circular reasoning- argument in which writer, instead of applying evidence simply restates the point in another way.
“The Bible is true, so you should not doubt the Word of God.”
“I deserve to have a later curfew, so you should let me stay out until 10pm!” http://www.softschools.com/examples/grammar/circular_reasoning_examples/401/
Red Herring- Argument that focuses on an irrelevant issue to distract attention from real issues.
“Sure, we haven’t given raises in over five years to our employees. You know, we work really hard to make a good product. We try to ensure the best customer service, too.” Read more at http://examples.yourdictionary.com/red-herring-examples.html#AizZoBrTbYVql9ux.99
“We need more revenue to support the programs that we have. Children are our future. Let’s support children.” Read more at http://examples.yourdictionary.com/red-herring-examples.html#AizZoBrTbYVql9ux.99