My LOG Emma borsoi 4^Dlin

Hi my name is Emma and I am attending the fourth class of a Language school. I want to begin this journey in literature with you. But literature is not easy at all, so I will try to simplify many passages.

First of all you need to clarify, what is literature for you.

Literature has so many meanings in everyone, you have only to find your own meaning.

In literature I can find myself
Words help me thinking about myself and my existence
Literature is the Language of our mind, the expression of our thoughts
Literature is the free flying of our ideas
Literature is history and history is literature
For me literature is like not only studying a language, but is like living in a language and knowing all about her past and her present, not the future of course, because you are not a seer. To study literature you have to enter inside the words of a book, inside the story. It is the free thinking of our mind. It starts from a book where you have to interpretate the words of someone else, you have to make them yours.

SO LET'S START OUR JOURNEY!

MARY SHELLEY

Mary Shelley was born in 1797 and he was the daughter of the feminist Mary Wollstonecraft and the radical thinker William Godwin. She could study only because she was the daughter of these two important philosophers. she was obsessed with her mother, who died when Mary was only 10 days, and she went to the mother's tomb every day to speak with her . Also in Frankenstein we have the obsession of giving life. Mary gave Birth to Clara when she was only 17 years old. then she had more 5 pregnancy but 3 of the children died. her love dies too. After that she believed that is not wrong to give life to a dead person.

Whit her novel Mary Shelley anticipated what is science now. She dedicated the novel to her father, who did not speak to her anymore because when she gave birth to a children she was underage. She died in 1851.

FRANKENSTEIN

Do you know something about the story? if you do not I will try to find a short recap...

Now if you are interested I have made also a spreaker where I speak like I am the monster. I think it is something usefull because you can clarify your ideas.

I think this book teach us especially one thing: nobody can go against nature, otherwise it can go against you and your life, it is Dangerous. Doctor Frankenstein went against nature and what happened? The monster that he created destroyed all the family of the scientist and he wants to kill doctor Frankenstein too.

One important thing in the book is that there are 3 points of view, because the story is more objective and the reader is more involved. The first narrator is Walton, who is a young Explorer on a voyage of expedition to the North Pole and he write some letters to his sister Margaret. The second narrator is Frankenstein who informs Waton; who informs his sister. The third narrator is the monster.

The monster search LOVE. He only wants to be accepted, but it is not possible in our society, where the appearence is more important than feelings, where the only thing that count is to have money and to be "fashion". If you are ugly you are out. I agree with this view of society, because we can see it everyday with our eyes. There are very few people who can see someone with different eyes, who can see the person you are inside. In fact people are the refelction of our emotions. The monster wants to know his creator, he wants to touch it because he needs it like a child with his mother, but the creator is scared and he doesn't want to be touched by the monster. This is terrible for the monster and for his feelings, so he becomes angry and terrible.

JOHN MILTON

Let's know something about him and his life

He was born in 1608 and he was the author of the epic poem "Paradise Lost". He was also a reformin prose writer, a member of the government and a victim of censorship. When the monarchy was abolished in 1649, he served the republican government, but after the return of monarchy in 1660, his republican writings were burnt and he was sent to prison. He died in 1674.

Paradise Lost >>> an epic poem

"Paradise Lost" is the masterpiece of John Milton and it is an epic poem. In fact it opens with an epic theme: "Of Man's First Disobedience". It takes place in the universe: Heaven, Hell and Eden. There are God, Satan,Christ, Man and many fallen angels. Satan was an archangel but he rebels against God and God fleed him into the bowls of the earth, where he becaomes a leadership in another reign which is hell. He is an epic hero because he embodies the figure of the rebel against authority and he fights to reach his goals.

Satan's speech

`Is this the region, this the soil, the clime,’

Said then the lost archangel, `this the seat

That we must change for heav’n, this mournful gloom

For that celestial light? Be it so, since he

Who now is sovran can dispose and bid

What shall be right: furthest from him is best

Whom reason hath equalled, force hath made supreme

Above his equals. Farewell happy fields

Where joy for ever dwells: hail horrors, hail

Infernal world, and thou profoundest hell

Receive thy new possessor: one who brings

A mind not to be changed by place or time.

The mind is its own place, and in itself

Can make a heaven of hell, a hell of heaven.

What matter where, if I be still the same,

And what I should be, all but less than he

Whom thunder bath made greater? Here at least

We shall be free; the almighty hath not built

Here for his envy, will not drive us hence:

Here we may reign secure, and in my choice

To reign is worth ambition though in hell:

Better to reign in hell, than serve in heaven.

Satan is a great speaker. His Language is persuasive but he is fair, because he tells everybody the truth. When someone will move from Heaven to Hell, he will lose everything. But he prefers to live free in Hell, than to live like a sevant in Heaven and he is moved by Revenge. We have to remember that God and Satan are quite similar because they have equal intellect, even if God is stronger. Macbeth and Satan are similar because they are both magnificent creatures, but they are doomed to destroy themselves.

I have found a clear explanation of "Satan's speech":

Satan is surveying his new home trying to become aware of the new situation after his downfall. Satan and the Rebel Angels had fallen down through space “Nine times the Space that measures Day and Night” before landing in hell. Satan compares the new world to Paradise and feels lost because everything is different here: “the region, the soil, the clime“; there is only “a mournful gloom” all over the place instead of the “celestial light” of the Paradise. He is not glad at first to be there, but he soon rejects despair and accepts the new situation: “Be it so…. Farewell happy fields where joy for ever dwells: hail horrors, hail infernal word”. In the following lines Satan shows all his ambition, all his self-confidence and determination. He realizes that now he is the “new possessor” of a place where “ farthest from him( God)…. at least we shall be free….and….may reign secure”. His ambition is to have a reign somewhere, no matter if that place is gloomy and horrible. He is great in the self-assurance of his strength: he has got “a mind not to be changed by place or time”, a mind that “ can make a Heaven of Hell, and a Hell of Heaven”. Then hell and heaven are only states of mind. Milton’s hell is not a real place! Hell is in the mind because the mind can change the external world: if we live in a Paradise but our mind perceives it as a hell, that place will be hell and viceversa. Satan is the real hero of Paradise Lost; he shows all the characteristics that Milton admired: courage, pride, oratorical power, self-confidence, ambition and so on.He is great in the self-assurance of his strength and in his contempt of the pain that has been inflicted on him. He also embodies Milton’s Puritan ideals of independence and liberty since he is seen as a rebel fighting against the absolute power of a tyrannical God, just as Milton, defender of liberties, struggles his battle against a despotic king. As Blake said, “Milton is on the Devil’s party without knowing”. He feels equal to God in reason and inferior only in power. When God banishes him from Heaven, he feels himself injured and wants to take a revenge against him, corrupting His new creation: man. He succeeds in his task and in the form of a snake, he persuades Eve to eat an apple from the forbidden tree of knowledge. Satan is ambitious. He is very proud and his boundless pride makes him believe that it “is better to reign in Hell, than serve in Heaven”. He has got the traits of the great military leaders and tries and succeeds in giving courage to his depressed soldiers after a defeat. The rebellious element in Milton’s Satan was later to influence the Romantic poets in the conception of the “satanic hero”, a lonely outsider who struggles against everything and everybody, isolated from the rest of mankind. In the Byronic Hero we can find many traits of Milton’s Satan.Even if Satan is the central figure in the passage, the presence of God is always felt. Satan never directly names him, but God is always in his thoughts. He feels to be equal to God in reason; he is inferior to him only in the power because God possesses the strenght:” what reason has equalled, thunder hath made greater”. He considers himself to be only “less than he”. Satan despises the pain inflicted on him, but he seems frustrated because he is aware of God’s superiority: he refers to God calling him “ the Almighty” ,he admits that “ he who now is Sovran can dispose and bid what shall be right”. The language of the passage, direct and forceful, has the characteristics of the best oratory full of memorable phrases.

The just-created Adam

This episode tell us the story of Adam's creation. When Adam was created by God, he was the only human being on the Earth. There were only hills, dales and shady woods. But Adam wants to know who is his creator, because our past is our present: you need to know who you are. So Adam doesn't know what to do and he asks to nature if she knows the creator, but obviously nature can not answer. First of all he thinks and then he worship all the things that he sees, all the things that God created. He will fell happier when he will know his creator, that's why language is limited compared to our feelings

DANIEL DEFOE

THE PERIOD: the rise of the novel

In the 18th century there were an economic and intellectual progress, people were interested in reading. More and more Readers belonged to the middle and lower classes and they preferred prose to drama or verse. They liked reading something different and involving like stories of pirates and thieves, books dealing with long journeysto distant countries, political pamphlets. The value of an author depended on the number of pages he or she wrote.

Novel: a long prose narrative about largely fictional, if usually realistic, characters and plausible events.

In the 18th century the writer's primary aim was to write in a simple way in order to be understood by people who were no well-educated

  • Events were usually narrated in chronological order
  • Narration was in the first person or the third person
  • The setting was given great attention
  • References were made to a particular time
  • All the characters were given contemporary names and surnames
  • The "hero" of the novel was the "bourgeois man"
  • The Language was simple and full of details

Now let's talk about our author: Daniel Defoe

Robinson Crusoe consist in three sections:

  1. Robinson leaves his family at 19 and goes to sea to make his fortune. He lands in Brazil where he starts a successfull plantation. One day, during an expedition to Africa to buy some slaves, he is shipwrecked on an Island. He spends there 28 years, 2 months and 19 days.
  2. This section is in the form of a diary of Robinson's experiences on the remote Island. He tells how he recreate the world he has left behind him, how he saves a Young savage from cannibals, who becomes his servant with the name of Man Friday, and how he is rescued by an English ship.
  3. Robinson returns to England.

One thing you can notice is that the story is subjective, because there is only one point of view (Robinson Crusoe), in this way the reader identifies himself with the protagonist.

The nature plays an important role. On the Island it seems to be an enemy, because the sea is seen like something that separates Robinson from the ship and when Robinson has to bring out his things from the ship after the shipwreck, the water drench them and they become more difficult to curry. But in facts nature plays the role of a setting and, as a setting, it can not be an obstacles to Crusoe.

Moll Flanders is the daughter of a thief sentenced to Death. She was born in Newgate prison. At the age of 14 she is sent into the servuce of a rich family. She goes through five marriages, she has children, she becomes a prostitute and a thief in order to survive.

The story describes the urban society. By setting the novel in London Defoe gives many information aboutthe customs of his time and he gives insights into some social problems. The novel is narrated in retrospective first-person narration by Moll.

WILLIAM BLAKE

POETRY: he rejected the neoclassical literary style and themes. He stressed the importance of imagination over reason and believed that ideal forms should be created not form observations of nature but from inner vision. there are two collections of short lyrical verses:

  • Songs of Innocence: the narrator is a sheperd who receives inspiration froma child in a cloud to pipe his songs celebrating the divine in all creatures. He deals with childhood as a symbol of innocence.
  • Songs of Experience: is the contrary of "Songs og Innocence", there is a bard who questions the themes of the previous collection. The view of life is more pessimistic. "Experience", identified with adulthood, coexist with and completes "Innocence".

Now I want to reflect upon Humanity: What is it? Can you measure it? I want to answer with he text of this song which I really like. And what about you? What is your answer at this question?

I can hold my breath

I can bite my tongue

I can stay awake for days

If that's what you want

Be your number one

I can fake a smile

I can force a laugh

I can dance and play the part

If that's what you ask

Give you all I am

I can do it

I can do it

I can do it

But I'm only human

And I bleed when I fall down

I'm only human

And I crash and I break down

Your words in my head, knives in my heart

You build me up and then I fall apart

'Cause I'm only human

I can turn it on

Be a good machine

I can hold the weight of worlds

If that's what you need

Be your everything

I can do it

I can do it

I'll get through it

But I'm only human

And I bleed when I fall down

I'm only human

And I crash and I break down

Your words in my head, knives in my heart

You build me up and then I fall apart

'Cause I'm only human

I'm only human

I'm only human

Just a little human

I can take so much

'Til I've had enough

'Cause I'm only human

And I bleed when I fall down

I'm only human

And I crash and I break down

Your words in my head, knives in my heart

You build me up and then I fall apart

'Cause I'm only human

Credits:

Created with images by ckmck - "Colores" • cdrummbks - "frankenstein" • bazzadarambler - "Bournemouth ... Mary Shelley." • skeeze - "frankenstein monster boris karloff" • CircaSassy - "A festival of song: a series of evenings with the greatest poets of the English language (1876)" • Jemimus - "Paradise Lost - Easton Press Edition"

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