With natural water erosion on pavemnt roads, and with constant pressure applied by vehicles that driveover small air filled chambers that are produced by the melting of ice, cause pot holes to form in roads.
Potholes are caused by the expansion and contraction of ground water after the water has entered into the ground under the pavement. When water freezes, it expands. After it expands it eventually melts, after it melts it leaves air filled chambers that are very weak. A car then easily drives of this phenomenon which then forms a pot hole.
A possible solution to help prevent the formation of potholes is to increase the depth that pavement is laid. Icreasing the depth of pavement to 4 feet for example, would mean that moisture would have to seap through 4 feet of concrete to start the fromation of a pot hole which seems very unlikely to happen.