How Does Biology Use Animals for Testing and Understanding Processes? Anchal and Pavneet

Introduction Video

https://www.powtoon.com/online-presentation/eVszLZDpJdk/?mode=movie#/

Cell Theory and Animal Cell Organelles

The cell theory has 3 components which is all known living things are made up of one or more cells, all living cells come from pre-existing cells and the cell is the basic organizational unit of life.

Cell membrane protects the cell from its surroundings and separates the inside of the cell from external environment; controls the flow of materials into out of the cell.

Cytoplasm is located inside the cell between the nucleus and the cell membrane and includes the cytosol, the organelles, and other life supporting materials, such as sugar and water, all contained by the cell membrane.

Nucleus contains the majority of the cell's genetic material in the form of multiple linear DNA molecules organized into structures called chromosomes and the organelle that controls the cell’s activities.

Endoplasmic Reticulum is found throughout the cell but the density is higher near the nucleus and the Golgi apparatus and a network of membrane-covered channels that transport materials made in the cell; is connected to the nucleus.

Nucleolus- makes ribosomes, which help to make proteins.

Ribosomes- floating ribosomes make proteins that will be used inside of the cell and are found in the cytosol and help to produce proteins, which make up much of a cell’s structure and are required for activities necessary for the cell’s survival; some ribosomes float in the cytoplasm, and others are attached to the endoplasmic reticulum.

Vacuole- distributed throughout the cell's cytoplasm and most are spaced equidistantly between the cell membrane, the nucleus, and the cell's other large organelles and contain water and other materials and are used to store or transport small molecules; plant cells tend to have one large vacuole; animal cells may have several smaller vacuoles.

Mitochondria- located in the cytoplasm of cells along with other organelles of the cell and it is where energy is released from glucose to fuel cell activities.

Centrosome- an organelle near the nucleus of a cell that contains the centrioles (in animal cells) and from which the spindle fibers develop in cell division.

Lysosome- organelles containing a large range of digestive enzymes used primarily for digestion and removal of excess or worn-out organelles, food particles, and engulfed viruses or bacteria.

Nuclear Membrane- surrounds the genetic material and nucleolus in eukaryotic cells. The nuclear membrane consists of two lipid bilayers—the inner nuclear membrane, and the outer nuclear membrane.

ON Science 10, McGraw- Hill Ryerson, p.g 11-13

Cell Cycle and Mitosis

Life span of different types of cells varies widely. For example, cells that live a rough life and are always constantly rubbing which are the cells that line in your stomach and make up your skin have shorter lifespans compared with muscle cells which last an average of 15 years. Therefore, cell division happens more often in some parts of your body compared to other parts. The cell cycle consists of mainly two main phases: cell division (mitosis) and interphase. The process of the cell cycle is controlled by the molecules, mostly proteins, that carry signals among cells and share information about each cells being. Interphase is the stage where cells act on the activities they are supposed to do such as producing protein. Eventually the DNA replicates to prepare for the cell division step and before and after the DNA replicates, there are 2 periods where the cell can produce more organelles and grows larger. Cell division also known as mitosis is when the cell’s nucleus divides into two parts and then the nuclei and cell contents divide into two daughter cells during cytokinesis. The cell division has 5 stages including the interphase in order for a cell to successfully replicate DNA into 2 separate cells.

ON Science 10, McGraw- Hill, p.g 40-41

More Depth in Cell Division (Mitosis)

There are 5 stages in mitosis, stage one is interphase, stage two is prophase, stage three is metaphase, stage four is anaphase and stage five is telophase. In interphase, the chromatin does its regular job, it grows and duplicates. In prophase, the nuclear membrane dissolves, chromatin condenses into chromosomes and centrioles migrate to the poles. In metaphase, the centrioles attach spindle fibers to centromeres and chromosomes line up in the middle. Anaphase is when the sister chromatids are pulled apart. Lastly telophase, nuclear membrane reappear and sister chromatids unwind into chromatin.

Five stages of Mitosis

ON Science 10, McGraw- Hill, p.g 34-35

Cell Specialization, Tissues and Organs

Cell specialization is the process by which the cells develop from similar cells into cells that have specific functions within a multicellular organism. Cells specialize according to the set of proteins they contain. The proteins determine the specific function of the cell and the cell is then specialized for a given task. Tissues are a cluster of similar cells that share the same specialized structure and function. Organs are a combination of several types of tissues working together to perform a specific function. Therefore, in order to have successful body systems, groups of specialized cells form tissues and group of tissues work together in organs.

Hierarchy of Organization- Animals

ON Science 10, McGraw- Hill, p.g 57- 58

Circulatory System

Laboratories and institutes are forcing animals to be injected with all these different harmful chemicals and toxic substances. They are injected by these because they want to see how the animals bodies would react to them and how their bodies deal with it. This impacts the circulatory a lot because the animals are not having a healthy blood flow with the nutrients their body needs. Instead they are having these toxic substances enter their body, negatively affecting their system and changing it up in a way it isn’t used to.

Respiratory System

Animals are being forced to breathe cigarette smoke for up to six hour straight, every day, for as long as three years. If the animals refuse to inhale this smoke, they are forced into machines that make them inhale the smoke or are put tubes through their nose. This puts a great effect on their lungs especially because tobacco contains many harmful substances such as nicotine and tar. Although they say that these smoking animal tests are useless because they aren’t close predictions to humans, they still continue to do it. Not only does this affect the respiratory system but it impacts the skin a great deal and can cause a tumour. After animals are being tested, one method they use to euthanize them is to put them in chamber and make them inhale a gas such as carbon dioxide which is what the body needs to exhale. In order for the animal to survive, it needs oxygen to inhale and exhale carbon dioxide but in this method there is no oxygen for the animal to breathe in.

http://www.peta.org/issues/animals-used-for-experimentation/animals-used-experimentation-factsheets/smoking-experiments-animals/

http://www.aboutanimaltesting.co.uk/what-happens-animals-after-testing.html

Digestive System

Researchers use animals to test medication for the stomach as well. A test called Lethal Dose Tests include testing the products, toothpaste, lipstick, soap, ink, oven cleaner, and many other chemicals are pumped into the animal's stomach to see how much it can take before it dies. The symptoms of these harmful chemicals in the stomach are either painful poisoning or stomach bursting. Other symptoms include poisoning include "unusual vocalisation", tears, diarrhoea, discharge and bleeding from the eyes or mouth, and convulsions and no pain reliever is given. A common form of the test is by oral dosing using a tube inserted down the animal's throat. The test is allowed to proceed for 14 days unless the chemicals are to harmful and kill the animal earlier. The more animals that survive, the less toxic the substance is and has less of an impact to the body system.

http://www.angelfire.com/home/yfbw/antest.html

http://www.iaapea.com/ld50-test-on-animals.php

Developing Animal Testing Technology

There are developing technologies related to systems biology which includes the ability to grow human cells in a scaffold that mimics and functions as a living organ does instead of testing products on animal.This device allows you to use laboratory grown human skin cells, which then create the body's allergic response to foreign chemicals. These are primary experiments which show patterns and trends, but the final tests are still essential to determine the technology's accuracy and sufficiently. An example of this technology would be human skin, liver, and a large selection of in vitro testing systems that, along with interpretive computer algorithms, which then estimate progressively outrageous biological outcomes for drugs and other therapeutic agents.There are developing technologies related to systems biology which includes Computer technology. They can collect detailed complete records and preserve cross references on the side effects which drugs may obtain, treatments, etc. When it is placed in a central database, researchers then can easily identify dangerous drugs or interactions. There are developing technologies related to systems biology which include Computer based alternative methods. Which produce a calculate a disease and treatment models, receive and sort millions of human research data points, and transfer human clinical trials practically. Computer model programs are given the power to create sophisticated anatomical functions which include a heart rate and, along with other important data, also can be used to identify disease or predisposition to certain illnesses.An example of a disease or predisposition to certain illnesses may be computer simulations of cancer cells which are now used to test drug targets inside of them, and there are also “mathematical models which have benefited us to gain a better understanding of HCV dynamics and clinical trial results within us humans.”

http://www.neavs.org/alternatives/in-research#sources

http://www.peta.org/issues/animals-used-for-experimentation/alternatives-animal-testing/

Ethical Issues Related to a Technological Development

There are technologies which have ability to grow human cells in a scaffold that mimics and functions as a living organ does instead of testing products on animal. But there are ethical issues related to this technological development in the field of systems biology because what if that laboratory grown human cell can’t accurately mimic and function as a living organ. Also this laboratory human cell creates the body's allergic response to foreign chemicals, but if those cells don’t respond accurately to how the human body’s actual allergic response to the foreign chemicals will be. There are developing technologies related to systems biology which includes Computer technology. But there are ethical issues related to this technological development in the field of systems biology because what if this technology doesn’t collect detailed complete records and preserve cross references on the side effects which drugs may obtain, treatments accurately. What if the computer technology is outdated and has false information. There are developing technologies related to systems biology which include Computer based alternative methods.But there are ethical issues related to this technological development in the field of systems biology because what if this technology doesn't calculates a disease and treatment models, receive and sort millions of human research data points, and transfer human clinical trials practically accurately. Also another ethical issue related to this technological development is that they remove animals from their natural habit, test products, and make animals suffer so humans can be safe from any bad side affects. At the end of each experiment they inject poison and kill the animal which was tested on.

http://www.neavs.org/alternatives/in-research#sources

http://www.peta.org/issues/animals-used-for-experimentation/alternatives-animal-testing/

Animal exploration or testing animals are exposed to tests which consist of testing everything brand new to all the way infecting animals with diseases, poisoning for toxicity testing, burning skin, producing brain damage, putting electrodes into the animal's brain, maiming, blinding, swollen body parts, sore bleeding skin, internal bleeding, organ bleeding, birth defects, and other painful and devastating procedure. Also animal testing consists of protocols that cause a lot of suffering, for example long term social isolation, electric shocks, not providing food and water, too much breeding and then separation of children from mothers.

http://www.neavs.org/research/testing

http://www.hsi.org/issues/becrueltyfree/facts/about_cosmetics_animal_testing.html

Process Of Animal Testing

Enforced the use of chemicals subjected in toxicity testing, which can also lead to oral enforced feeding, enforced inhalation, skin or even injection into the abdomen, muscle, ect.

Subjection to drugs, chemicals or contagious disease that are at the stage where there could be illness, pain and distress, or potentially even death.

Genetic control (adding or taking away one or more genes)

For recognition they do ear notching and tail clipping.

Small periods of time where there are moving limitations for observation or examination purposes

Larger periods of time where there are moving limitations.

Animals go through food and water hardship

At the end of the exploration , the animals are killed by carbon dioxide asphyxiation, neck braking, or by different types of deaths.

http://www.hsi.org/campaigns/end_animal_testing/qa/about.html#definition

Cancer

Animal testing is used for cancer. Animal testing is used for cancer because it allows you to discover the broken genes and molecules which cause cancer, investigate how the disease grows and spreads rapidly over time, develop and test new types of treatment and tests, and explore how our immune system can help fight tumours. We use animal testing for cancer because animals are living organisms and have a very similar body live humans. When studying cancer scientist use cells which are taken from human tumours, others study cell processes in yeast or bacteria, and some use computer models to study cancer. By using studies from animal testing it has supported effectively through all most all the progress which were made in understanding and treating cancer over a long period of time, from offering clues to solutions of the disease to allowing us the best ways to treat it.

http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2011/06/21/animal-research-is-helping-us-beat-cancer/

http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/about-us/we-develop-policy/our-policy-on-supporting-science/the-use-of-animals-in-cancer-research

Technologies Used in Human Health Care

There are technologies used in human health care for medical imaging in Canada for diagnosing/treating abnormalities in human tissues (x-rays, ultrasound, CT scans, MRI, microscopy) which are tested on animals. Animal testing is used for cancer. Animal testing is used for cancer because it allows you to discover the broken genes and molecules which cause cancer, investigate how the disease grows and spreads rapidly over time, develop and test new types of treatment and tests, and explore how our immune system can help fight tumours. We use animal testing for cancer because animals are living organisms and have a very similar body live humans. When studying cancer scientist use cells which are taken from human tumours, others study cell processes in yeast or bacteria, and some use computer models to study cancer. By using studies from animal testing it has supported effectively through all most all the progress which were made in understanding and treating cancer over a long period of time, from offering clues to solutions of the disease to allowing us the best ways to treat it. Also animal testing is also used for river blindness which was an anti-parasitic medicine ivermectin, this was one of the world’s most leading animal treatments, since this treatment helped to save millions of people in Africa and South America from river blindness. River blindness affects about 17 million people. Ivermectin then became available to customers in 1987.

http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2011/06/21/animal-research-is-helping-us-beat-cancer/

http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/about-us/we-develop-policy/our-policy-on-supporting-science/the-use-of-animals-in-cancer-research

http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs095/en/

http://www.animalresearch.info/en/medical-advances/diseases-research/blindness/

Importance/Impact of Technologies Used in Human Health Care

Animal testing has importance/impact of technologies used in human health care for medical imaging in Canada for diagnosing/treating abnormalities in human tissues (x-rays, ultrasound, CT scans, MRI, microscopy). It is important and have impacted technologies because it is illegal to have human volunteers to be tested on, therefore scientists use animals to test using technologies first because animals have similar working bodies as humans. Also if there any problems which may occur they can be resolved. It is important that they are tested in animals before they’re given to patients, to make sure that they’re safe to humans to use.

http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2011/06/21/animal-research-is-helping-us-beat-cancer/

http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/about-us/we-develop-policy/our-policy-on-supporting-science/the-use-of-animals-in-cancer-research

http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs095/en/

http://www.animalresearch.info/en/medical-advances/diseases-research/blindness/

http://www.understandinganimalresearch.org.uk/about-us/science-action-network/forty-reasons-why-we-need-animals-in-research/

Public Health Strategies

There are many vaccines and medication that are created to help either prevent or stop diseases and illnesses. Vaccines are products designed to be protective of immune responses and prepare the immune system to fight future infections from diseases. Vaccines stimulate the immune system’s production of antibodies that identify and destroy disease-causing organisms that enter the body. For example there are two different types of vaccines, one is called “Core” which are recommended for animals in a specific location and the other one is called “Non-core” which is for unique animals with special needs. For example, there is a disease called “Cysticercosis” that affects the muscles of infected animals and is caused by the larvae of a human tapeworm. Unfortunately, the disease has no cure. However, the animals have a carcass inspection and if it detects that there are a certain amount of cysts in the muscle tissue then the report would be sent to a laboratory to be confirmed of being diagnosed.

http://www.inspection.gc.ca/animals/terrestrial-animals/diseases/reportable/cysticercosis/fact-sheet/eng/1329807596298/1329808582354

How Vaccines Work in the Animal Body

A vaccine helps the animal body to fight against a disease or illness. It does this by stimulating the immune system with a virus or bacteria that is not capable to cause a disease. If the animal accepts this, memory cells are then created which helps fight off the disease efficiently and quickly.

http://www.peteducation.com/article.cfm?c=2+2115&aid=955

Health Researchers

Areas such as product development, drug testing and behavioral research use animal testing to help them make new discoveries. The National Institute of Health uses animal testing in approximately 40% of their projects, they wish to enhance the quality of life and to lengthen the human lifespan. Its mission is to gain knowledge about the nature and behavior of living systems and the application of that knowledge to extend healthy life and reduce illness and disability. All animals used in federally funded research are protected by laws, regulations, and policies to ensure that everything is done to their comfort. All investigations happening at the National Institute of Health is being looked at by animal welfare laws and policies the ensure that they are still caring for the animals and do nothing to harm them in any way.

https://grants.nih.gov/grants/policy/air/general_public.htm

Positive Social Impacts

There are many positive social impacts for animal testing. One of the positive social impacts of animal testing is that some individuals believe that it is okay for animals to be tested because when they get tested on any problems which may occur, they happen to the animals which helps prevent human complications. Some individuals believe that animals are not as important living organism as humans since they don’t have the ability to do some things which humans can. Another social impact for animal testing is that some individuals believe that animals are very similar to humans therefore if a product is tested on them it may be safe for humans to use as well. They would rather have a product tested on living organism which is more similar to them in reactions rather than technology to assure their safety. Lastly a positive social impact is that animal testing allows products to obtain feedback which gives more ideas of what could be improved and enhanced. Instead of a good product manufactured it can be an excellent product from the data analyses. These are the positive social impacts of animal testing.

http://www.understandinganimalresearch.org.uk/about-us/science-action-network/forty-reasons-why-we-need-animals-in-research/

Negative Social Impacts

There are many negative social impacts for animal testing. One of the negative social impacts of animal testing is that many individuals are against animal cruelty and use animal cruelty products. These individuals believe that is it morally ethical to test products on animals since they are living organisms as well. Also there are many large companies and companies which are against animal testing. This campaigns and companies enforce the ethicals actions taken by individuals on animals when testing products. These companies and campaigns also put together videos and movies of how animals are tested to attract more audience to their beliefs and ideologies since in the videos they show the after side effects of the products on their body. In some videos they show the animals suffering and dieing. Lastly there are now options for animal cruelty free products which allow the consumers to decide which products they believe is morally ethical for them to use.These are the negative social impacts for animal testing.

https://www.crueltyfreeinternational.org/why-we-do-it/arguments-against-animal-testing

http://www.peta.org/issues/animals-used-for-experimentation/animal-testing-bad-science/

http://animal-testing.procon.org/

Positive Economic Impacts

There are many positive economic impacts of animal testing. One of the positive economic impacts of animal testing is that once the result to the animal testing is safe, it then can be sold to customers in the market which bring a lots of more money to the economy. When a product has positive reviews it has a higher demand in the market rather than negative reviews. Also individuals are more likely to put their money into a product which has been tested on an animal rather than technology because animals are more similar to our body instead of technology. These are the positive economic impacts of animal testing.

http://animal-testing.procon.org/

altweb.jhsph.edu/altex/27_1/ALTEX_1_09_fft_economics_hartung_bottini_.pdf

http://www.neavs.org/research/limitations

Negative Economic Impacts

Animal tests can take months or years to conduct and analyze (e.g., 4-5 years, in the case of rodent cancer studies), at a cost of hundreds of thousands—and sometimes millions—of dollars per substance examined (e.g., $2 to $4 million per two-species lifetime cancer study).

This table shows how animal testing requires different chemicals which is a lot of money and how "in vitro" testing is cheaper.

http://www.hsi.org/issues/chemical_product_testing/facts/time_and_cost.html

Positive Environmental Impacts

There are many positive environmental impacts of animal testing. In order to make these toxic chemicals available for the public to use to, their manufacturers, in partnership with a number of government regulatory agencies, which “safety test” them on a wide variety of animals. Animals such as rats, mice, guinea pigs, hamsters, squirrels, gerbils, rabbits, fish, toads, frogs, lizards, insects, dogs, cats, monkeys, apes, wild birds, quails, pigeons, turkeys, ducks, chickens, cows, goats and horses are the most common animals used in animal testing. Several number of of the tests are The Lethal Dose (LD50) which is a test done to determine the dosage of a substance which could potentially kill 50% of the animals given that dosage, the Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD)is a test which is done to determine the highest dose of a chemical or substance which could be given to an animal species so it can tolerate for a major part of its lifespan, the Toxic Concentration Low test (TCL)is a test which done to determine the lowest concentration of liquid, gas, or vapor capable of creating a defined toxic effect in a specified test specie over a specific exposure timeframe, and the Lethal Dose Low (LDLO) is a test which is done to determine the lowest possible dose of a toxic material at when the death of the exposed test animal happen. Because scientists themselves understand that these tests have “little or no significance” when used to humans, and because of the several number of animals used, the argument over the use of this type of testing has caused the use of them to less since the the years between 1980’s and 1990’s. This is a positive environment impact because when these tests are done they help prevent any human complications.

http://www.peopleforreason.org/PRISM%20THE%20CONNECTION%20BETWEEN%20ANIMAL%20TESTING%20AND%20THE%20ENVIRONMENT.pdf

Negative Environmental Impacts

The use and disposal of toxic chemicals in animal testing results in many negative impacts on our environment. There are 5 different examinations that identify the negative environmental impacts from animal testing, resources used in animal research, waste production in laboratories, sources of pollution, impact on laboratory workers health and biodiversity impacts.

The resources used in animals include the animals itself, millions of animals are used for research and testing meaning many are sntached away from their surroundings and habitat. This results in disruption to the food chain, for example, if there needed to be test for a new product on mice and all the mice in one area are taken away, the predator wouldn’t have mice to prey on. A variety of chemicals are involved in the research and animal testing and the disposal of these hazardous and toxic chemicals put a great negative impact on the environment.

Waste production from the laboratory are the animals itself, when the animals are done being tested and are contaminated with hazardous chemicals, viruses, infectious diseases, and other laboratory waste are thrown out every year. Also, animal research industries regularly get rid of large amounts of hazardous wastes. These disposal methods include rendering, landfill disposal and incineration which is method for managing radioactive animal carcasses and tissue.

Air pollution is produced by the emission of gases and it comes from the incineration of animal carcasses and laboratory supplies such as animal bedding that contain experimental chemicals, drugs, and other toxins. Incineration is an environmental concern due to fuel consumption to maintain temperatures, the disposal of ash from incineration in landfills, and the result of air pollution. Water pollution is caused from soil contamination and runoff of animal waste infected with drug and chemical testing and can result in ground contamination. Public drinking water supplies are contaminated by animal testing because public water treatment facilities often cannot filter out drugs, hormones, and chemical solvents in wastewater.

The hazardous that comes along with animal testing has a direct impact on the human health. The development of an allergic reaction and asthma is an important health and environmental safety risk for all the people involved in the care and use of animals.

The biodiversity impacts are huge when it comes to animal testing. The capturing of all these animals to be taken back to research facilities results in the decrease of that animal's population and increases biodiversity concerns. The decrease of the population also puts an impact on the food chain, predator and prey relations.

http://www.neavs.org/docs/NEAVS-New_England_Anti-Vivisection_Society-Environments_2014-Environmental_Impacts_and_Testing_of_Animal_Research.pdf

Solution

Some animal cruelty free products are the Body Shop, Urban Decay (Some vegans have boycotted UD since it was bought out by L`Orèal.), Too Faced, e.l.f, Lush, Pin Up Girl, Ecco Bella, Hard Candy.

You can also use alternative tests for animal testing. Tests that use cells and tissues from human are “in vitro tests” and sophisticated computer models or chemical methods are “in silico” and “in chemo tests”. These tests are cheaper, faster and more predictive for humans than the animals being tested. In vitro test for skin and eye irritation can be conducted in a day whereas rabbit tests take about 2 or 3 weeks. Animal tests only correctly predicts human reactions 72 percent of the time, while the non-animal test known as the CAESAR is credited with correctly predicting reactions 90 percent of the time.

Credits:

Created with images by Hey Paul Studios - "Mitotic Spindle Embroidery"

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