Reconstruction By: Patrick McManus

Reconstruction begins,

Reconstruction is the period after the civil war in which plans were made for the south to re-join the north. Reconstruction needs to happen so our country can be fully functional together instead of apart. After the war the south is in financial and physical peril.

Two presidential plans,

Lincoln was planning on letting the south rejoin the Union without much difficulty until his assassination. If 10% of each state took an oath to the US and all of the states accept the 13th amendment the south could rejoin. After Lincoln's assasination Andrew Johnson was elected president with the intention to let the south back into the union if they followed orders. They also had to pay off their debts on their own, abolish slavery, and renounce session. They also had to accept the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments.

Slavery ends in Texas,

Gordon Granger was appointed by Johnson to go to the south and enforce the emancipation proclamation. Juneteenth was the day that Granger arrived in Texas and the slaves learned that they were free. it was a day of celebration. The Freedman's Bureau was made to supply Freemen with an education and basic supplies. Many people are against the Freedman's Bureau.

New Texas Governor Appointed,

Johnson appointed Andrew J. Hamilton as governer of Texas. Many of the delegates in the Constitutional Convention are ex-confederates. Some say that this made the Convention bias.

A New Constitution,

The constitution of 1866 was a rewritten version of the confederate constitution. The ex-confederates refused to ratify the 13th and 14th amendments. The constitution of 1866 included "black codes" which were a way to restrict the rights of freemen.

Congress takes control,

Radical republicans and those in congress that feel that Johnson's plan is too light on the south so they are taking control. They plan on thanking control by outvoting him in the senate. They will then start radical reconstruction.

Radical Reconstruction Begins,

The congressional reconstruction plan, known as radical reconstruction, is much harsher than the previous plans. It, among other things, has made 5 military districts in the south, each controlled by a high ranking member of the army. These districts will only be let into the union if they follow a set of rules put in place by the government. One of these rules was that many white southerners had to take "The ironclad oath." This oath stated that you had not voluntarily served in or aided the confederate army. Refusing to take this oath can keep you from voting, serving on juries, or holding public office.

Freedmen Get the Vote,

As part of radial reconstruction, the army came to south to assist freemen to vote. By 1868, about 50,000 freedmen were registered in the state of Texas. The Ku Klux Klan (KKK) was a group of white men founded in Tennessee who hated all African Americans and they attempted to block all reconstruction. Carpetbaggers were northerners who moved to have reconstruction and scalawags were white southerners who supported reconstruction. The KKK were against them for supporting reconstruction. The KKK just recently attacked and burned down a black church in West Texas.

Reconstruction ends,

Reconstruction will officially end on March 1870. White southerners are upset about the fact that legally, African Americans are equal to them. Most freed African Americans live on the outskirts of towns or in separate communities. They do this mostly out of fear of the KKK. In 1872 Richard Coke (a democrat) is elected. He will be the first democratic governer in a line of democratic governors for the next 100 years.

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