Chapter 8 Spark Page

James Watson and Francis Crick

Francis Crick and James Watson are the founders of the structure for the D.N.A molecule. Both were awarded the Nobel peace prize in 1953. Francis Crick was a molecular biologist, in which he revealed the genetic code in the structure. James Watson, the main founder of the D.N.A, explaining how information was being passed down to the living material.

Chargaff Rule

Created from Erwin Chargaff

The Chargaff rule states that all DNA from organisms should be stood as a 1:1 ratio. Pyrimidine and Purine are equal to the amounts of guanine and Cytosine. Finally, the rule also states that adenine is equal to thymine. These patterns would be found in strands of the DNA.

How do the base pairs bind?

Attached to the sugar rings, adenine and thymine hold the two strands of DNA structure together. Supporting Adenine and thymine is a nucleotide base.

What is a chromosome?


A chromosome is a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes. A packaged and organized cell creating the most of the cell cycle.

What is a karyotype?

Karyotype is the number and visual appearance of the chromosomes in the cell nuclei of an organism(s). A karyotype can tell how many chromosomes a person has, as well as detect any errors those chromosomes may have.

How does DNA replicate?


The enzyme that is in charge of replication is called a Helix. This is the point where the double helix is opened up and the DNA is copied is called a replication fork. Once the strands are apart, a enzyme named polymerase copies each strand using the base-pairing rule. This is how DNA can replicate.

What damages DNA?

Metabolic or hydrolytic processes damage DNA at a point.

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