COMPOSITION: composition is not only used in static images but also in film and television. It includes all the elements that contribute to the appearance of a frame. It includes the way that people and objects are arranged for specific dramatic effect.

FRAME: A film's smallest unit is a frame, which is like a still photograph. When you press pause on a film, that still image is the frame. As viewers, we are shown 24 frames per second, and in total 144,000 frames in a feature length film.

SHOT: The term "shot" refers to the appearance of what is in each frame. This is determined by how far the camera is placed from the subject, the camera's angle as well as any movement. Each shot has a purpose and is chosen based on not only what is happening in the scene but genre, topic, and audience.


Establishing shot: The first shot in the scene which reveals information about setting e.g. location, environment etc. Long shot: shows the subject from top to bottom, head to toe, with some background. Medium long shot: Shows the subject from the thighs upward - also known as the 'cowboy shot'. Medium close up: Frames the shoulder from the chest or shoulder up. Useful for showing facial expressions.Close up: Fills the screen with part of the subject e.g. hand or face.Extreme close up: Emphasises a small area of detail such as the eyes or the mouth or an important object.



DIAGETIC SOUND: is any sound presented as originated from source within the film's world. Digetic sound can be either on screen or off screen depending on whatever its source is within the frame or outside the frame.

NON-DIAGETIC SOUND: Sound whose source is neither visible on the screen nor has been implied to be present in the action: narrator's commentary. sound effects which is added for the dramatic effect. mood music.


TILT: Tilting is a cinematographic technique in which the camera stays in a fixed position but rotates up/down in a vertical plane. Tilting the camera results in a motion similar to someone raising or lowering their head to look up or down.

PAN: Tilting is a cinematographic technique in which the camera stays in a fixed position but rotates up/down in a horizontal plane. The effect would be of someone looking side to side.

ZOOM: A shot accomplished with a lens capable of smoothly and continuously changing focal lengths from wide-angle to telephoto (zoom in) or telephoto to wide-angle (zoom out)


Using the grid provided, match the appropriate name and description with the images you see. Also think about what the purpose of that shot might be.

Once you think you have organised them correctly, check your answers and glue them into your book.



Created with images by robertlischka - "sony lens walimex" • bekkahsphotography - "film" • Pexels - "black and white camera film" • payalnic - "film" • sigisagi - "Wave"

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