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On & Off the Midway A History of Local Eating

"I, Too" by Langston Hughes

I, too, sing America.

-

I am the darker brother.

They send me to eat in the kitchen

When company comes,

But I laugh,

And eat well,

And grow strong.

-

Tomorrow,

I’ll be at the table

When company comes.

Nobody’ll dare

Say to me,

“Eat in the kitchen,”

Then.

-

Besides,

They’ll see how beautiful I am

And be ashamed—

-

I, too, am America.

Northside residents, and the rest of the black community of Chapel Hill, have experienced many changes in their "place at the table" within the restaurant business. From Jim Crow to segregation to sit-ins and social change, the area rests at the center of the Civil Rights Movement.

A look into the history of the restaurants and their significance to the community helps us understand what relation food has to building a community, a sentiment expressed by many people regarding the places they miss visiting, even amid memories of strife and discrimination.

The restaurants on and off the Midway do present a long and harsh history of discrimination and racism, but sometimes all you want to remember is that excellent plate of barbecue.

Marcie Cohen Ferris writes in her book The Edible South: "The detail, the texture of everyday life--pigs smoked, oysters shucked, tamales shaped, cakes baked, chicken fried, bourbon imbibed, corn milled, seeds saved, the foods shared at a common table and those denied--enables us to more clearly understand the American South" (3).

Food presents the opportunity for fellowship, reflection, and unity. So, food also acts as the perfect medium through which one can utilize power: to serve or to deny. The foods we share at a common table, and those that are denied, shape our lives and our perspectives of the world.

This is a look into some of the restaurants on and off the Midway, as they influenced the lives of Northside, and other Chapel Hill, residents. The black business district of Chapel Hill was central to the Civil Rights Movement, but almost all of the black-owned restaurants closed many years ago. Then, we take a look at the people who helped bring these ideas together. Finally, we return to the context in which all of these businesses operated during the 1960s--the racism and protests.

The Restaurants

The Rams Head Rathskeller

The Daily Tar Heel, 13 June 1963, Page 2, via Newspapers.com.

The Rams Head Rathskeller, lovingly known as "The Rat," was a staple of the Chapel Hill community, found on Amber Alley at 157-A Franklin Street and opened in 1946.

The Chapel Hill Herald, 24 Oct. 1999, Courtesy of Chapel Hill Historical Society.

According to this 1999 article in The Chapel Hill Herald, Edward "Papa D" Danziger and his family, immigrants from Germany who escaped Nazism, opened The Rat in 1946. The Danziger family also owned Danziger's Candy Kitchen, the Ranch House, Villa Teo, the Zoom-Zoom, and the Bacchae disco bar below the Zoom-Zoom. The restaurant featured "German beer-hall ambiance," located below ground-level and full of great food and great people.

The business, across from Bandido's, a Mexican restaurant frequented by the UNC community, closed in 2007 and remains unoccupied.

The Rathskeller was discovered to be one of three restaurants, along with Harry's and Danziger's, that was not segregated in 1958, when the Human Relations Committee of the Campus Y "launched a campaign to open restaurants and theaters in Chapel Hill to the twenty-six black students at the university" (Chapman 146).

In an interview with Ulyses "Man" Cozart, an employee of 37 years at The Rat, we learned of the hold that The Rat had on Chapel Hill, its history and significance to many. Mr. Cozart began working there at the age of 18, which he details in the interview at the link near the bottom of this page.

The Daily Tar Heel, 25. Feb. 1988, Page 6, via Newspapers.com.

This February 1988 article taken from The Daily Tar Heel covers The Rathskeller, albeit taking a different angle than usual. The column discusses the role of the wait staff in the restaurant, which was all black at the time. As the article describes, The Rat is more than a restaurant - it is a tradition. Its long history on Franklin Street and connection to so many people in the area further its relation to everyone.

The Rathskeller menu c. 1980s, courtesy of Ulyses Cozart.

Mr. Cozart brought this menu with him to our interview, and estimated that it was from the 1980s. He wanted to be able to show us an earlier menu, but could not find where he stored it at home. The map on the front of the menu shows the maze of six themed rooms that made up The Rat, with each room decorated according to its theme.

The Daily Tar Heel, 8 Mar. 1967, Page 3, via Newspapers.com.

The staff at The Rat created their own small community within the restaurant, each employee earning his own nickname during his time there. Eugene Lyons was "Pop," Bob Davis was "Sweet Bob," Claudius Richardson was "High Pocket," Ed Morgan was "Squeaky," Linwood Swann was "Loon," Jimmy Jackson was "Pee Wee," Jimmy Mitchell was "Mitch," Davis Blackwell was "Hoss-Man," Alvin Alston was "Thinman," and Ulyses Cozart was "Stickman." All of the employees worked at the restaurant for quite long periods of time, so they were able to develop relationships with one another as well as the customers. Even the customers knew the nicknames, so we met Mr. Cozart as "Man" and he laughed as he asked if we knew that was not his actual name.

Durham Herald-Sun, 25 Jan. 2002, via Chapel Hill Historical Society.

The meals at The Rat were like no other. From lasagna served in a bowl to a steak called "the Gambler" served in a skillet, it seems like underground food was the best kind of food.

Bill's Barbecue

Many people have indicated their love and adoration for Bill's Barbecue, which sat on North Graham Street right at the heart of the Midway. The black-owned business was a primary spot for families in Northside and the rest of Chapel Hill, serving delicious barbecue and fried chicken - tastes and smells that resonate with former patrons today.

The Lincoln Echo, 21 Nov. 1961, Page 3, via Chapel Hill Historical Society.

The restaurant was owned by Mildred Council's husband's family, as he worked there along with his siblings who were all brought up in the family business. Ms. Council also worked there, and her time there would eventually result in the restaurant we see on Rosemary Street today.

The barbecue was delicious, the French fries were great--everything. Hot dogs, cheeseburgers, all of it was hot off the grill. It was a family-owned restaurant...It had the counter with the stools, and you go in and place your order. You can take it out or eat there... -Kathy Atwater

When asked what was special about Bill's, a look passes over the faces of almost everyone we ask. We see a look of joy and memory flash across their faces, as they cannot put into words what made them keep going back to the restaurant. Jokingly, they may say it was the barbecue, but it was really the whole experience. Like anything else you love, you can name it, but no one can describe it.

Mason's Grocery and M&N Grill

Mason's Grocery and M&N Grill sat on North Graham Street, right across from St. Joseph CME Church. These businesses offered a wonderful spot for Northside residents to shop and eat at businesses owned by fellow residents.

The Lincoln Echo, 21 Nov. 1961, Page 2, via Chapel Hill Historical Society.
The Lincoln Echo, Dec. 1952, Page 4, via Chapel Hill Historical Society.

Mason's Grocery, and the motel attached to it, was the first grocery store owned and operated by African-Americans. This was the first time that Northside neighbors had a grocery store right in their neighborhood, and owned by people they knew and trusted.

The M&N Grill was one of the main hangouts for black teenagers, and proprietor Robert Nicks said, "I think we should have had [integration] a long time ago. I don't see why we can't all do anything we want to and go where we want to and let each other live in peace. If they'd just let white and colored go to school together and forget about it there wouldn't be any trouble. What's keeping it back is a lot of politicians, and I think the colored ought to band together and work together as a group" (Chapman 127).

Lincoln High students would often visit M&N to hang out, whenever they were not at the Rock Wall, and planned many of their activities during the movement at restaurants like this one.

Mama Dip's Kitchen

Cooking begins at home, and Ms. Mildred Council, or Mama Dip, found the inspiration to open her own restaurant based on the skills she learned at home. She started Mama Dip's Kitchen as Dip's Country Kitchen in 1976 after leaving Bill's Barbecue. She already had a reputation as a great cook, so the landlord of the building, Mr. Tate, approached her one day asking if she wanted to rent the space from him, as the restaurant in it was going out of business. The next day, she said yes.

The heart of Mama Dip's has never changed in its almost 50 year history. The restaurant is one of the few remaining black-owned restaurants in the area, and it’s a popular dining spot for many Chapel Hill residents. In order to find out a little bit more about Mama Dip’s, we decided to explore some ratings and reviews found online. These reviews came from three different places: Yelp, TripAdvisor, and Google Reviews. We went in simply hoping to find the average ratings and popular dishes at this restaurant, but we ended up discovering something very interesting. Many of the reviewers seemed somewhat nostalgic when writing about their meal at Mama Dip’s, and said that it reminded them of “something their grandmother used to make” or how it took them back to an earlier time in their lives. This discovery was profound, as it suggests the possibility of food existing in a “time out of time” or having transportive capabilities. The ability for a meal to take someone back to the past or evoke memories of home-cooked meals is powerful, and it seems that Mama Dip has made this happen for many.

What a fine meal--just like both our Southern grandmas used to make...At home I cook sparingly modern--nutritious food, no complaints about my home cooking, yet this meal brought me back to heaven...opted for chocolate pecan pie, served warm--reminded me of the 'brownie pie' my mother used to make for her bridge club. Excellent treat. 4 stars. (Anonymous, TripAdvisor, 19 Sept. 2017)
Mama Dip's is one of the best restaurant dining experiences in Chapel Hill. Affordable price and friendly staff make this wood floor, wood booths, wood walls and wood roof a welcoming choice. The food is an indulgence in Southern home cooked meals. Let the fried green tomatoes, BBQ ribs, fried chicken and collard greens take you back to the way Mama Dip grew up herself. 5 stars. (David P., Yelp, 24 Nov. 2014)
Love the food and the homey family feel of the atmosphere. It’s a real treat going there for my Sunday afternoon meal. I love this place. (Damon Martin, Google Reviews, 2 Nov. 2017)

Long Meadow Dairy (The Dairy Bar)

The Dairy Bar was a favorite ice cream spot for Chapel Hill residents. The restaurant was still segregated in the early 1960s, so black customers could only get their treats at the window and eat them elsewhere. Even though they were not allowed to eat inside, black customers were not discouraged by this and the Dairy Bar was one of their favorite places to go after school.

Image in upper left: The Daily Tar Heel, 3 Dec. 1969, Page 6, via Newspapers.com. Image in lower left: The Lincoln Echo, Apr. 1953, Page 4, courtesy of Chapel Hill Historical Society. Image on right: The Daily Tar Heel, 20 June 1963, Page 8, via Newspapers.com.

These advertisements for Long Meadow Dairy's Dairy Bar showcase their selling themselves as "Chapel Hill's Water Substitute" and "your DAIRY STORE." The Dairy Bar was the best place to "keep cool" and hang out with your friends over a 35-cent, 3-scoop sundae (unless you make it during the 29-cent sale!). The restaurant was right across the street from Colonial Drug, just one block away from St. Joseph CME Church.

The Daily Tar Heel, 19 Apr. 1961, Page 1, via Newspapers.com.

In a picture taken by Jim Wallace, white patrons enjoy ice cream sundaes at The Dairy Bar. This photograph appeared in The Daily Tar Heel in April 1961.

Colonial Drug Store

West End Wine Bar sits at the location known to most in Chapel Hill for Colonial Drug Store. The drug store was a soda shoppe, restaurant, and pharmacy for the area and frequented by students at Lincoln High School during the mid-twentieth century, as the school was just down the street and around the corner from St. Joseph.

Donny "Hollywood" Riggsbee was hired by "Big John" Carswell as a busboy when he was a young teenager, even though the business was segregated at the time. Mr. Riggsbee was the first black person hired at Colonial Drug by "Big John," and he worked there for fourteen years.

Mr. Riggsbee describes his time at Colonial Drug while the marches happened down Franklin Street. "I said, 'Man, y'all need to squash that.' I said, 'Y'all need to let bygones be bygones.' And then when I talked to him that day, he started letting black peoples in that store...He was no member of no Ku Klux Klan, nothing like that. He...just didn't like black people back then." There were stereotypes at play and Hollywood agrees that Big John played into them. Yet, Big John took a chance on him and hired him to help clean the drugstore upon asking who his father was.

Colonial Drug Store served primarily black clientele due to its location on West Franklin Street, yet the lunch counter was segregated.

The Lincoln High students who held a sit-in in February 1960 at Colonial Drug chose it due to their connection to the place. They all knew Big John and would buy and read comic books and buy fountain drinks from him after school and after Sunday School. This business received a lot of their money, but they were denied the right to eat at the lunch counter due to the color of their skin. So, they fought for that right. Their story is detailed more under "Protests."

The Daily Tar Heel, 20 June 1963, Page 1, via Newspapers.com.

This image from the June 1963 edition of The Daily Tar Heel depicts protesters outside of Colonial Drug during the sit-ins that took place in an attempt to integrate the restaurant. One of the signs reads “2,4,6,8, who the hell wants to integrate?” and another reads, “sing along with John” who was the owner of Colonial Drug. It is evident that white backlash was a reality during this time.

The Daily Tar Heel, 27 June 1963, Page 1, via Newspapers.com.

This column from a June 1963 edition of The Daily Tar Heel details an arrest made during the protests against Colonial Drug. A picketer was arrested for allegedly attacking Big John's 13-year-old son.

The Daily Tar Heel, 27 June 1963, Page 10, via Newspapers.com.

This article and its accompanying photograph (taken by Jim Wallace) centers on demonstrators at Colonial Drug. A continuation of the column, the protests were promised to continue indefinitely without any action by the governor to end segregation. The Civil Rights Movement was alive at this time in Chapel Hill, and the activists always made sure to keep themselves at the center of attention so that the legislators and public could not ignore the injustices at hand.

The People

Mildred "Mama Dip" Council

Photo by Chuck Liddy, News & Observer, 6 June 2014.

Everyone knows Mama Dip even if they have never met her - her name is synonymous with a hot, Southern, home-cooked meal. We all see her name on Rosemary Street as it sits on a pot and invites us in for dinner.

Growing up on a farm and learning to cook at a young age for her large family, Ms. Council started on the path to owning a beloved restaurant even when she did not realize it. She went to cosmetology school in Durham and started working at a salon on Franklin Street, but she quit soon after taking the job.

She worked at Bill's Barbecue, owned by her husband's family, for many years before opening her own restaurant on Rosemary Street. Dip's Country Kitchen opened in 1976. She tells her history in the interview above.

Kathy Atwater

Ms. Kathy Atwater in her office at the Jackson Center after our interview.

Ms. Kathy Atwater spoke of her memories of the restaurants of the Midway in the 1960s and beyond in an October 2017 interview.

In our conversation with her, found at the link above, she discusses Bill's Barbecue and other restaurants she once loved to visit in the area.

She echoed the sentiment toward Bill's Barbecue that most people express - it was definitely a centerpiece of the community and one that is greatly missed.

Ulyses "Man" Cozart

Mr. Ulyses "Man" Cozart dons a cap from The Rathskeller on a cold, autumn morning.

We sat with Mr. Cozart in November 2017 for a conversation that we had at the Bread and Butter Cafe on Rosemary Street in Chapel Hill. This interview was not even supposed to happen, but it turned out to be probably the highlight of our time learning about Chapel Hill's food history. We tried to track down Pop Lyons, also a former waiter of The Rat, but were unsuccessful in our efforts even with the help of Ms. Kathy Atwater at the Jackson Center. Then, one Thursday afternoon in November, she wondered aloud about Mr. Cozart, whom I contacted that day and we scheduled a meeting for the following Tuesday. Within a week, we met twice and had a wonderful breakfast at Bojangles in Durham, when he shared his own delicious barbecue with me, a part of his life that gives him immense pride.

The Context

The Racial Divide

The town of Chapel Hill was not without its share of racism, discrimination, and prejudice during the Civil Rights Movement era.

“When Marie [Roberson, born in Carrboro in 1940] came back from Washington, D.C., the fear that all blacks knew deep down as a result of segregation began to penetrate her innocence. These were the ‘bitter hours’ when Marie discovered she was ‘black and poor and small,’ when a knowledge dawned on her about the viciousness of which white people were capable. It stole her carefree days, the days of feeling completely safe that are the birthright of every child...[She] developed an attitude of resistance rather than submission...[and was] bothered, in particular, by the deference older black people showed whites…[She] knew from close personal experience that these traditions, embodying the racial etiquette of the South, were not mere words. They represented the larger patterns of power and submission that characterized the labor relations, political participation, and social dynamics of the period. They both reflected the status quo and enforced the status quo, for to fail to participate in these cultural forms was to make oneself a target, whether one was black or white” (Chapman 108-110).

"Persistent Jim Crow laws offered a solution for whites who would not release the mythology of 'our Negroes.' If blacks could not be controlled completely, as they were in slavery, Jim Crow at least allowed whites to control their access to the material South and the rights of citizenship" (Ferris 248).

"Sometimes we’d have enough to get ice cream [at the Dairy Bar], but...we couldn’t ever sit down in there to eat it. Couldn’t sit down in Big John’s either, ‘cause he had a little eatery in there, little lunch counter. So we couldn’t sit down sit down in there and eat. We would always have to buy our stuff and leave…[and] I resented it. Yes. Yes. Because I’m sayin’, ‘I’m spending my money here. Why am I not allowed to sit down and enjoy what I purchase here?’" -Stella Farrar (Chapman 104)

Jim Crow enabled white business owners to discriminate based on race and maintain the hierarchy of power that existed before the abolition of slavery. Denying access to public spaces like restaurants requires people to choose to turn someone away solely based on their race and skin color. “A particular irony of the segregated lunch counters and restaurants was that the food in the midst of these violent confrontations was a product of the shared culinary heritage of black and white southerners” (Ferris 252).

The Daily Tar Heel, 3 Dec. 1969, Page 6, via Newspapers.com.

This December 1969 article from The Daily Tar Heel contains an interview with a UNC student, in which he speaks about his ideas about the “role of blacks” in the university. Years after the Voting Rights Act and Civil Rights Act have become law, this question-and-answer piece asks what black people want. The student interviewed answers quite simply that "the tide should shift. Now, the white man should suffer some."

The Protests

David Mason, in the above interview from 2008, details his involvement in the sit-ins at Colonial Drug Store in 1960 as a Lincoln High School student.

"When we made the decision to go down to Big John's, Colonial Drug Store, that defied everything that we had been taught." -David Mason

They went against everything their parents had instilled in them, as well as their teachers and preachers, "in a black community that emphasized education, civil rights activism, and personal excellence" (Ferris 254).

The above video is the path taken by David Mason and his friends, which he explains in his oral history, once they decide to engage in a sit-in protest at one of their favorite places in Chapel Hill: Colonial Drug Store. They began at Morehead Planetarium and stopped at what is now West End Wine Bar, but the path in the video then goes around the corner to what is now Greenbridge Condominiums, then to St. Joseph CME Church and the Jackson Center on Rosemary Street.

The restaurants in Chapel Hill were prime targets of protest, as a lot of them were segregated at the time. Churches in the area often served as locations for organizing or beginning marches.

“As it was elsewhere through the South, “The Movement” was rooted in the African American churches. The black churches were places where the organizers could meet. The strength of the movement came from local black churches, mainly St. Joseph’s CME and the First Baptist Church” (Dickson 16).

Leaders gather participants for a march in front of St. Joseph CME Church, photo by Jim Wallace (from Courage in the Moment)

Chapman describes the night of February 28, 1960, the Sunday when a group of young black men decided to hold their first sit-in at Colonial Drug. They “were walking back toward town from the Morehead Planetarium. William Cureton and Earl Geer were seniors at Chapel Hill's black Lincoln High School. Thomas Mason and James Brittian were ninth graders at Lincoln and best friends. Along with one or two others who were with them that night, these teenagers were long-time friends from the Pottersfield area, the heart of the black community in Chapel Hill. They were running buddies who gathered at The Rock Wall to socialize. But what set them apart from many of their peers was a rebellious attitude toward authority, particularly the authority of white supremacy. Now, as the young men walked next to the old stone walls built by slaves, under the cold bronze stare of Silent Sam, the statue honoring the University of North Carolina's Confederate war dead, they talked over their plan to assault one bastion of segregation.

“As the teenagers passed by the many small shops and restaurants that lined Franklin Street, they encountered Harold Foster, another Lincoln senior and neighborhood friend. The youths stopped and talked briefly among themselves, then continued on their way through the evening cold. Their numbers had increased by one.

“This night the young men were on their way to the Colonial Drugstore at the other end of town in the black community. John Carswell--Big John, as he was called--stayed open late at night to cater to the needs of his black customers. Nevertheless, black patrons who bought snacks or sandwiches could not sit down to enjoy their food. Like nearly all of the other white-owóned lunch counters and restaurants in Chapel Hill, the Colonial Drugstore was strictly segregated. Now, however, Carswell's Jim Crow policies were about to be challenged” (113-114).

The Daily Tar Heel, 19. Dec. 1963, Page 3, via Newspapers.com.

This article from The Daily Tar Heel covers the arrests made during a protest outside Clarence’s Bar and Grill in December 1963. Police officers tried to remain “neutral,” and the protesters went limp during the arrest process as a display of non-violent civil disobedience. The photo included was taken by Jim Wallace.

Jim Wallace "was privy to the meetings of leaders of the movement, who often met at Harry’s, a New York-style delicatessen on Franklin Street owned by Harry and Sybil Macklin. The business was one of the few integrated restaurants in town that welcomed the young demonstrators” (Ferris 261). Wallace and Jock Lauterer have many photographs of student protests and sit-ins at Chapel Hill restaurants, cafés, convenience stores, and ice cream shops available via Wilson Library's North Carolina Collection at UNC.

“Sit-ins and protests continued throughout 1963 and 1964 in Chapel Hill, including a march in front of the segregated Long Meadow Dairy Bar on Franklin Street’s West End. Jock Lauterer worked there as a ‘soda jerk’: ‘I was shamefully naive of the Dairy Bar’s segregationist policy--blacks were served at the ice cream counter but couldn’t sit down in the dining room.’ By the following autumn, the Dairy Bar had changed its policy: ‘I, a freshie at UNC, was out in the streets, protesting, too.’ Violence escalated during the December 1963 protests in Chapel Hill, as segregated business owners retaliated in anger” (Ferris 262).

Ms. Stella Farrar participated in the sit-ins and protests at Colonial Drug, where Big John and his wife “pulled out these cattle prods. And told us if we didn’t get out they were gonna do this to us, and they stuck it to our skin and shocked us, and stuff. ‘Bout thirty-five of us on the inside, and we went straight to the lunch counter, and then...we locked ourselves, arms and stuff, together. And we just sat there until the police came…[The cattle prod] hurt. It stung. But we didn’t move. We didn’t move. We sat there and we endured that pain, because it was determination, and, ‘My god, why should we be treated like this? We’re human beings too’” (Chapman 105).

“As the movement unfolded, Stella saw her friend Colleen Burnette burned by ammonia thrown in her face at Brady’s Restaurant, and she saw other demonstrators get urinated on by Mrs. Watts at the Watts Grill” (Chapman 105).

Participants engaged in the protests as peaceful demonstrations most of the time, yet they were almost always met with violence. They showcased a mighty strength of character in their ability to non-violently protest in the face of slurs, weapons, violent and angry people, chemicals, and even a disgusting act of disrespect.

-----

When the young, black high school students walked from Morehead Planetarium toward Colonial Drug Store on February 28, 1960, they had not planned to sit at the counter that night. Instead, they ran into people along the way who helped them find the courage and strength to do what needed to be done, following in the footsteps of the college students in Greensboro.

Then, they grew to be primary influencers in the civil rights protests of Chapel Hill. They thought their struggle would help to spark a change in the South and in the world. The racism they faced in what outsiders considered a liberal bubble needed to be confronted. So, if they revealed the truth of their lives in this town and how they helped to change it, they might be able to see changes in the people and policies exerting immoral and unethical power over them.

The restaurants on and off the Midway were central to the actions of civil rights activists during the 1950s and 1960s, as they worked to end segregation in the state and fought for access to public spaces. However, in our time speaking with Northside neighbors and other people in the Chapel Hill community, we have learned that the civil rights protests are not the most important thing they remember about their favorite restaurants.

Rather, they remember the food and the times during which they gathered with friends after school to hang out at M&N Grill, eat dinner at Bill's Barbecue, and grab some ice cream at the Dairy Bar. Of course the segregation in Franklin Street businesses did affect them, but that is not what they want to remember nor what matters the most to them. We were both surprised by this notion every time we heard it, as we always wanted to focus on memories of the Civil Rights Movement. But, in the context of the violence of the struggle and everything that the activists endured during their time fighting for their rights to be treated like human beings, it is absolutely understandable to want to remember the good times in life rather than dwell on the horrible, racist, discriminatory actions. While they brought up the protests, they made sure to note that what they miss the most is eating a Gambler at The Rat and those wonderful French fries at Bill's. So, maybe all you want to think about sometimes is that great plate of barbecue you wish you could eat just once more.

THANK YOU

We would like to thank all of our field partners for helping us to bring a piece of the story of the Midway together. There is so much more history to be told, but we are grateful to have been able to learn about the black business district and Chapel Hill's restaurants that have impacted so many lives in such amazing ways. Thank you to Mr. Ulyses Cozart, Ms. Kathy Atwater at the Marian Cheek Jackson Center for Saving and Making History, and Ms. Susan Newrock at the Chapel Hill Historical Society for your important work for the community and being integral to our understanding of Chapel Hill's history.

References

Header photo: Chapel Hill Herald, 27 Sept. 1998, via Chapel Hill Historical Society. Featured in image, from left: Ulyses Cozart, Kenny Mann, Alvin Alston.

Chapman, John K. Second Generation: Black Youth and the Origins of the Civil Rights Movement in Chapel Hill, N.C., 1937-1963. M.A. Thesis. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1995.

Dickson, Paul, and Jim Wallace. Courage in the Moment: The Civil Rights Struggle, 1961-1964. Dover, 2012.

Ferris, Marcie Cohen. The Edible South: The Power of Food and the Making of an American Region. UNC Press, 2014.

--- Logan Wagner --- Olivia Weidner ---

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