Passive & Active Voice
passive voice: the subject receives the action ( verb )
active voice: the subject does the action ( verb )
passive example: The Christmas Tree was lit up by the thousands of strands of lights.
active example: The thousands strands of lights lit up the Christmas tree.
passive example: When the tree was light cheers were made by the people.
active example: When the tree was light the people cheered.
Perfect & Progressive Tense
Progressive Tense consist of a form of the auxiliary verb be and the present participle of the main verb. (be + present participle)
present progressive: is+a verb (ing)
past progressive: was + verb(ing)
future progressive: will be
Perfect Tenses consist of a form of the auxiliary verb have and the past participle of the main verb. (have + past participle)
present perfect: have + verb
past perfect: had +verb
future perfect: will have + verb
present progressive: santa is coming down the chimney
past progressive: santa was making a list
future progressive: santa will be giving gifts to kids on December 25.
present perfect: I have made a list to send to santa
past perfect: Mrs. Claus had made cookies for his trip
future perfect: the elves will have groomed the reindeer
Indicative - a fact or a question
fact ex: The gingerbread man has a green bow tie.
question ex: Have you eaten a gingerbread cookie yet?
Imperative - a command
ex: Come to the kitchen right now to bake gingerbread cookies
ex: Go to the store to buy frosting
Emphatic ( do & did ) - do plus a verb
ex: I did like the recipe we used last year for the gingerbread cookies
ex: I do want to make 2 batches this year
subjunctive- wish, command, contrary to fact, recommend, words that normally are for subjunctive: suggestion whether, wish desire, if that, would should could whether if
ex wish: I wish we could make a gingerbread house too.
ex command: You need to be told that you must bake them at 350 degrees
ex recommend: I recommend that you add a sprinkle of sugar on top of the baked cookies.
ex contrary to fact: If i were going to frost the cookies, I would use pink frosting
be careful subjunctive will be a subjunctive sentence before anything else also emphatic trumps an indicative fact