Rivalry in the Northwest
Also in the 1800s four nations clamed the country as the oregon country.
- The region also contained about half of what is now the Canadian Province of Britsish Columbia.
Adams-Onis Treaty- In 1819, secretary of state John Quincy adams got spain to approve The Adams-Onis Treaty. The spanish agreed to set the limits of their territory at what is now Californias northern border and to give up all claims to Oregon.
Mountain men in Oregon
Mountain men in Oregon- Fur traders were the first people to take on a life in Oregon. At first the merchants traded with the Native Americans. They lived in buffalo skin lodges and dressed in frigged buckskin pants, moccasins, and beads.
What did America gain from the ADams-Onis Treaty?
Oregon and Manifest Destiny
Economic troubles in the East and reports of Oregon's fertile land drew many people.
Marcus and Narcissa Whitman
Dr. Marcus and his wife where mercinaries who went to Oregon in 1836 and built a mission among the Cayuse people near the present site of Walla, Walla, Washington. They wanted to provide medical care and convert the Cayuse to Christianity.
Along the Oregon Trail
Drawn by reports of fertile Oregon land , and driven by economic hard times in the East, many Americans took to the trail. These pioneers were called Emigrants, because they left The U.S.A to go to Oregon.
America seeks its Manifest Destiny
Many believed that the nations mission was to spread freedom by settling the entire continent. In the 1840s, New York newspaper editor John O'sullivan expressed in more specific words the Idea of a national mission.
Fifty Four Forty or Fight
Many Americans wanted the United States to take over all of Oregon. Britian would not except the border.
How did Polk's views differ from Clay's in the 1844 election?- Clay disagreed on Polk's idea.
Statehood for Florida and Texas
How did Florida become a state?-
When Spain transferred Florida to the united States on July 17, 1821, Florida became an american territory. Tallahassee became the territorial capital in 1824. Florida had a territorial governor.
The territory Grows
In 1837 the census for the territory of Florida reported that that 48,000 people lived there. Florida voters chose 56 people to attend the constitutional convention in St. Joseph, a small port city on the golf coast.
Statehood for Florida
President John Tyler signed the Florida Statehood bill.
What caused the population of Florida to grow?
In 1821 mexico won independent from Spain. In 1835 the conflict grew violent. At first, Mexico encouraged Americans to settle in Texas.
The Texans had only about 180 soldiers to take Santa Anna's army of several thousands. For 13 long days, through several attacks, the defenders of the Alamo kept Santa Anna's army at bay with rifle fire. The Alamo's defenders had been defeated.
Texas declares its independence.
During the siege of the Alamo, Texan leaders met at the town of Washington on the brazos. Texan leaders set up a temporary government.
The lone Star Republic
In September 1836, Texans elected Sam Houston as their president. Andrew Jackson, however, refused their request.
Texas becomes a state
Many Texans wanted to join the United States. The situation changed with the 1844 presidential campaign.
Why did it take a long time for the United States to Annex Texas?
How did the Santa Fe Trail benefit the New Mexico Territory?
The New Mexico Territory.
Mexico won its independence from Spain in 1821. They feared that the Americans would take over the sea. William Becknell, The first American trader to reach Santa Fe, Arrived in 1821.
How did William Becknell influence the American settlement of New Mexico?
California's Spanish Culture
Spanish explorers and missionaries from Mexico settled California in the 1700's. The missions aimed to convert Native Americans to Christianity and the Spanish way of life.
President James K. Polk was determined to get the California and New Mexico territories from Mexico. The United States said that Rio Grande formed the border. To bring pressure, Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor to lead U.S. forces into the disputed area on the Rio Grande.
A war plan
Polk planned to defeat Mexico by accomplishing three goals. By 1847, Zachary Taylor had accomplishment the first goal.
On June 14, 1846, the Americans declared California independent. They renamed it the Bear Flag Republic.
Mexico gave the United States more than 500,000 square miles of territory. Mexico accepted the Rio grande as its border with Texas.
What did America gain from the Mexican War?
California and Utah
California Gold Rush
The farmers have thrown aside their plows. Americans made up about 80 percent of the 49ers.
The treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the war with mexico and made Californios.
The life of a Forty Niner
As people rushed to gold rush spots they also built communities. Cities flourished during the gold rush.
Gold rush Society
Mining camps had men of all races and backgrounds.
Economic and political progress
The gold rush had lasting effects in California. Rapid growth brought the need for better government.
How did the California gold rush lead to the expansion of cities?
A religious refuge in Utah.
While the Gold Rush was transforming California, change was also being made in Utah.
The Mormons move on.
The church of Jesus Christ of latter day Saints was among a number of religious movements that sprang up during the religious awakenings of the 1830s and 1840s. Smith published The Book of Mormons that year. Smith formed a community in New York.
A Haven in the Desert.
The Mormon migration began in 1846. The Mormons route became know as the the Mormons trail. At first life was difficult for the settlers.
Why did the Mormons have to keep moving from one place to another?