## Summary Meet 16-17Physics, Music and German

### Physics: Sound

#### Global context, Key concept and ATL skills

1. Global context Scientific and Technical innovation
2. ATL skills Research skills, Self-management skills, thinking skills
3. Key concept(s) Form

#### Contents

1. What is sound?
2. Describing a sound wave
3. Speed of sound in different materials
4. Types of waves
5. Transverse waves
6. Longitudinal Waves
7. Where can sound travel?
8. How does sound travel?
9. What is a decibel (dB) and how is it measured?
10. Relating Music and Sound

#### My summary - Physics, Sound (300 words)

1. Sound is basically a series of vibrations travelling through a medium such as air, water, etc. It travels in the form of longitudinal waves.
2. A sound wave is a pattern of disturbance caused by energy traveling through any medium.
3. The loudness of the sound depends on the vibration of the object. The sound is soft when the object moves a short distance from its rest position. The sound is loud when the object moves a long distance from its rest position.
4. The pitch of the sound depends on the amount of sound waves produces in 1 second, which is called the frequency calculated in Hertz (Hz).
5. There are 2 types of waves: Transverse and Longitudinal waves.
6. Transverse waves are the waves in which the particles of the medium move perpendicular to the wave’s direction of travel. Electromagnetic waves travel in the form of transverse waves.
7. Longitudinal waves are the waves that travel parallel to the wave’s direction of travel. Sound usually travels in the form of longitudinal waves.
8. Sound travels in solids, liquids and gases but not in vacuum. It cannot travel in vacuum because it requires a medium to travel. Sound travels fastest in solids because the particles are very close together held by strong inter-molecular force. In liquids, sound travels slower than in solids because their particles are further apart from each other. In gases, sound travels at its slowest speed because the particles in gases are very far apart from each other.
9. As mentioned earlier, sound travels in the form of longitudinal waves. When something makes a sound, it vibrates and sends vibrations through the air until it reaches our ear drums. Vibrations are passed on inside the ear, and sends electrical signals to the brain to interpret what are we hearing.
10. A decibel is used to measure sound level, but is also widely used in electronics, signals and communication. The higher the decibel level, the louder the noise.
11. The distinction between music and noise is mathematical form. Music is ordered sound. Noise is disordered sound. Music and noise are both mixtures of sound waves of different frequencies. The component frequencies of music are separable with a discernible dominant frequency. The component frequencies of noise are and random with no discernible dominant frequency.

#### What is Sound?

1. Sound is simply a series of vibrations that cause an audible wave of pressure to pass through a medium such as air, gases and liquids.
2. Sound travels in the form of longitudinal waves.

#### Describing a sound wave

1. A sound wave is the pattern of disturbance caused by the movement of energy travelling through a medium (such as air, water, etc.) as it propagates away from the source of the sound.
2. Loudness of a sound (related to amplitude of the sound wave)
3. Pitch of a sound (frequency of the sound wave)

#### Example

Take the first ‘C’ of the piano and compare it with the last ‘C’ of the piano. Which one has a higher pitch?

#### Speed of Sound in different materials

1. Rubber 60 m/s
2. Air at 40°C 355 m/s
4. Gold 3240 m/s
5. Glass 4540 m/s
6. Copper 4600 m/s
7. Aluminium 6320 m/s

#### Types of Waves

The different types of Waves

#### Transverse Waves

In a transverse wave, the particles of the medium move perpendicular to the wave's direction of travel.

#### Longitudinal Waves

Real life diagram of longitudinal waves
Parts of a longitudinal wave
1. Compression: A compression is a region in a longitudinal wave where the particles are closest together.
2. Rarefaction: A rarefaction is a region in a longitudinal wave where the particles are furthest apart.

#### Where can sound travel?

Sound can travel through solids, liquids and gases

#### How does Sound travel?

1. Sound travels in the form of longitudinal waves.
2. When something makes a sound, it vibrates the air molecules, which sends a chain reaction through the air until it reaches our ear drums. When our ears pick up that sound, signals are sent to our brain so that we can interpret what are we hearing.

#### What is a decibel (dB) and how is it measured?

1. A decibel is used to measure sound level, but is also widely used in electronics, signals and communication.
2. The higher the decibel level, the louder the noise.
3. On the decibel scale, the level of increase of 10 means that a sound is actually 10 times more intense, or powerful.
Decibel (dB) Chart

#### Relating music and sound

1. The distinction between music and noise is mathematical form. Music is ordered sound. Noise is disordered sound.
2. Music and noise are both mixtures of sound waves of different frequencies.
3. The component frequencies of music are separable with a discernible dominant frequency.
4. The component frequencies of noise are continuous (every frequency will be present over some range) and random with no discernible dominant frequency.

#### Questions regarding the summary

What is discernable dominant frequency?

Discernable dominant frequency in simple words is, frequency that can be separable and easily identified.

Are the frequency and pitch related?

Yes, the frequency and the pitch are related; the higher the frequency, the higher the pitch, the lower the frequency, the lower the pitch.

What is a decibel?

A decibel is unit to measure sound level.

What are the different types of waves?

There are 2 types of waves: Transverse and Longitudinal wave.

In which types of waves does sound travel?

Sound travels in the form of longitudinal waves.

#### Acknowledgements

http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/waves/Lesson-1/Categories-of-Waves

http://www.dangerousdecibels.org/virtualexhibit/2howdowehear.html

https://www.nde-ed.org/EducationResources/HighSchool/Sound/speedinmaterials.htm

http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/sound-wave

http://www.animations.physics.unsw.edu.au/jw/dB.htm

http://physics.info/music/

### Music: Felix Mendelssohn

#### Global context, Key concept and ATL skills

1. Global context Orientation in Space and time
2. ATL skills Research skills, Self-management skills, Thinking skills
3. Key concept(s) Time, Space

#### Contents

1. Synopsis
2. Childhood
3. Early work
4. Style and innovations
5. Final years
6. Famous works
7. Reflection of one of his works: Songs without words

#### My summary - Music, Felix Mendelssohn (300 words)

1. Felix Mendelssohn was born on February 3rd, 1809 in Hamburg, Germany. At just age 9 he made his public debut in Berlin. He joined Singakademie and started composing. Mendelssohn founded the Leipzig conservatory of music in 1843.
2. Pianist and conductor Felix Mendelssohn, started playing the piano at a very young age under Ludwig Berger. He studied composition at a young age too under K.F. Zelter. Felix Mendelssohn was very quick to establish himself as a musical prodigy as he composed a handful of operas and 11 symphonies.
3. In 1820 alone, he wrote a violin sonata, two piano sonatas, multiple songs, a brief opera and a male quartet.
4. In 1826, Mendelssohn produced one of his best-known works, Overture to a Midsummer Night's Dream. During that time, he published his first book of songs, entitled Songs without Words (1832). His works used to make people feel relaxed and as mentioned above, he was a romantic composer, his composition made people felt more romantic during that era.
5. Felix Mendelssohn is often viewed as a Classic-Romantic composer whose style strangely incorporated elements of formal balance and graceful control on one hand, and romantic subjectivity and fantasy on the other.

#### Synopsis

1. Felix Mendelssohn was born on February 3, 1809, in Hamburg, Germany.
2. At age 9, he made his public debut in Berlin. In 1819, he joined the Sing Akademie music academy and began composing non-stop.
3. At Sing Akademie, he also became a conductor, but continued to compose beautifully. Mendelssohn founded the Leipzig Conservatory of Music in 1843.

#### Childhood

1. Pianist, composer and conductor Felix Mendelssohn was born (Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy) in Hamburg, Germany, on February 3, 1809.
2. In Berlin, the young Mendelssohn began taking piano lessons with Ludwig Berger.
3. Mendelssohn also studied composition under composer K.F. Zelter as a child. In 1816, he broadened his lessons, studying under pianist Marie Bigot during an extended stay in Paris, France.
4. Mendelssohn was quick to establish himself as a musical prodigy. During his childhood, he composed a handful of operas and 11 symphonies. At just 9 years old, he made his public debut in Berlin.

#### Early work

1. In 1819, Felix Mendelssohn joined the Sing Akademie music and began composing. In 1820 alone, he wrote a violin sonata, two piano sonatas, multiple songs, a brief opera and a male quartet. In 1826, Mendelssohn produced one of his best-known works, Overture to a Midsummer Night's Dream.
2. Mendelssohn continued to compose prolifically while working as a conductor. He wrote the Reformation Symphony in 1830. During that time, he published his first book of songs, entitled Songs without Words (1832). In 1835, Mendelssohn was granted an illustrious role: conductor of the Gewandhaus Orchestra in Leipzig.
3. His works used to make people feel relaxed and as mentioned above, he was a romantic composer, his composition made people feel more romantic during that era.

#### Style and Innovation

1. Felix Mendelssohn is often viewed as a Classic-Romantic composer whose style incorporated elements of formal balance and graceful control on one hand, and romantic subjectivity and fantasy on the other.
2. From Händel (German-born composer) he acquired the ability to craft choruses that communicated in a direct, accessible style, as evidenced in his psalm settings and, of course, in his second oratorio, Elijah.

#### Final years

1. In May 1847, Mendelssohn's sister, Fanny, who was a lifelong inspiration to him, died suddenly. His health, already compromised by his strenuous career, began to deteriorate rapidly. Six months later, on November 4, 1847, Felix Mendelssohn died of a ruptured blood vessel in Leipzig, Germany.
2. Although he was only 38 when he died, Mendelssohn managed to distinguish himself as one of the first significant Romantic composers of the 1800s.

#### Famous works

1. Weeding March
2. Violin Concerto
3. Elijah
4. Songs without words
5. Octet
6. Symphony No. 5

#### Reflection of one of his works: Songs without words

1. I have heard one of Felix Mendelssohn’s works called Songs without words.
2. I have noticed, most part of the pieces are in Major scale and is slow. The slow music leaves behind the effect of romance.
3. The work is very soothing to hear and resembles calmness and peace.

#### Questions regarding the Summary

In what year was Felix Mendelssohn born?

Felix Mendelssohn was born in the year 1803.

Under whom did he learn to play the piano?

Felix Mendelssohn learnt to play the piano under Ludwig Berger.

What were few of his famous works?

Weeding March, Violin Concerto, Elijah, Songs without words, Octet, Symphony No. 5 were some of his famous works.

#### Hard words

Oratorio

a large-scale, usually narrative musical work for orchestra and voices, typically on a sacred theme, performed without costume, scenery, or action.

#### Acknowledgements

http://www.biography.com/people/felix-mendelssohn-40373#later-work

http://www.classicfm.com/composers/mendelssohn/guides/felix-mendelssohn-musical-style/#0C3PW2RUhdpSA11Y.97

### German: Houses in German

#### Global context, Key concept and ATL skills

1. Global context: Identities and Relationships
2. ATL skills: Research skills, Social skills, Self-management skills
3. Key concept(s): Culture

#### Summary – German, Houses in Germany (200 words)

1. In Germany, most of the people live in apartments instead of bungalows or houses as it is very densely populated nation. All houses in Germany are built out of stone and bricks instead of wood. Many of their houses have a backyard, a large patio, basements and cellars.
2. In Germany, an average family house has 2 bedrooms, 1 bathroom, they usually have balconies at the first floor, they contain doors and windows that are very well insulated to reduce heating costs (or cooling costs → Air conditioners), each room is decorated with different and beautiful wallpapers and with carpet.
3. Most of the German people live in cities (Stadt) such as Bonn, Berlin, Frankfurt, Hamburg, etc. Farmers stay in Farmhouses, and middle class (or poorer people) live in villages (Dorf).
4. There are many words related to houses and rooms in Germany which are listed below:
• Wohnzimmer – Living room
• Schlafzimmer - Bedroom
• Bett - Bed
• Kissen - Pillow
• Fenster - Window
• Sofa - Bookshelf
• Bücherregal - Bookshelf
• Schrank - Cupboard
• Stuhl - Chair
• Computer - Computer

#### Contents (Inhalt)

1. What are the different types of houses in Germany?
2. What are the different rooms in an average family house?
3. Where do the people live?
4. German vocabulary for a house

#### What are the different types of houses in Germany?

1. People live in apartments more than in houses as it is a densely populated nation
2. Houses are built out of stone and bricks
3. Germany’s houses have basements or cellars
4. These houses usually have patios

#### What are the different rooms in an average family

In Germany, an average family house...

• Has 2 bedrooms and 1 bathroom
• Usually have balconies at the first floor
• Have doors and windows very well insulated to reduce heating costs
• Have each room decorated with different carpet and wallpaper

#### Where do the people live?

1. Most of the German people live in cities such as Bonn, Berlin, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Leipzig, München, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Bremen, Dresden, Heidelberg, etc.
2. Farmers stay in Farmhouses.

#### German vocabulary for a house

German vocabulary for a house

#### Questions regarding the summary

What are the German houses usually made of?

Where do the poorer people live in Germany?

The poorer people live in villages (Dorf in German) in Germany.

#### Acknowledgements

http://www.encyclopedia.com/places/germany-scandinavia-and-central-europe/german-political-geography/germany