La Historia de España Jennifer Cardamone 8corazones

Spain was a great place to repair damaged vehicles, trade, and refuel. For 700 years, Spain remained a volatile place and people were battling each other for it.

Iberos from Africa habitaron the eastern land and the Celtas inhabited the the western land. Celtiberos were the first people to actually historically inhabit Spain.

Rome is constantly growing. Its strong military allowed it to expand and take over. They mataron everyone they saw and did not make allies. The Roman Empire se derrumba in 409 AD.

In 711 AD, Arabs, Berbers, Syrians from North America invadieron the peninsula. Se movieron to Spain because they were persecuted for their faith in Africa. Conquered nearly all of the peninsula.

La Reconquista was almost continual fight between Christian kingdoms in north of peninsula and Muslims, who controlled the south. It was a "war of words" and there were fake Christians. El Cid was "The Hero of the Reconquista".

Santiago es the patron saint of Spain. He was known for his battle cry "matamoros". It was believed that if you didn't follow Jesus, then you were a devil worshipper.

The Moors dividieron into small kingdoms. In Granada, the last Moorish king was defeated in 1942.

Reyes Catolicos: The King didn't do anything, the Queen did all of it. Queen didn't allow her troops to go in unless she did. King: Fernando of Argon Queen: Isabel of Castilla. United the Christian Kingdom against the Moors. Solidified their powers through religion and military success. Ended La Reconquista.

1492 and 1502, all remaining Moors and Jews must leave Spain or convierten to Christianity. Interrogate and torture people to figure out if they converted or not. Put on trial and be executed, also.

Gold diggers estan casados for money and power. Juana, daughter of Fernando and Isabel, marries Felipe (el Hermoso) of the powerful Habsburg family. Rule Spain for a long time together. Juana was known as "la Loca". Stress from ruling the country made her crazy.

Carlos, son of Juana and Felipe, was the Holy Roman Emperor. Power got to his head and claimed himself the Emperor. Changed his name to Charles V. Spanish Empire creció rapidly and gained many resources.

Carlos V also known as Road Warrior. He peleó to stop the Protestant Reformation and was very rooted in Catholicism. Pasó legacy to his son, Felipe II.

Continued wars against Protestants. In 1554, Felipe II se casó Mary Tudor of England. Son would become heir to throne but they did not have a son. Elizabeth I came to power in England. Annexed Portugal, Dutch declare independence from Spain: Starts war involving England. In 1588, Spain's invincible Armada fue derrotada by England

La Leyenda Negra was England and Portugal's way of getting back at Spain. Propaganda to not travel to Spain. Spain quiere to start war with Portugal and England. Fliers posted in Dutch and Portuguese saying that Spain is filthy and the king and queen comen children.

El Greco es a painter from Greece. Real name = Domenikos Theotokopoulos. Traveled to Spain in search of work but Felipe II odiaba his style and refused to hire him. El Greco then painted pictures that made fun of Felipe and his power.

Felipe II es tenido éxito by his son, Felipe III. Then Felipe III's son, Felipe IV toma the throne. Felipe IV reina over one of the richest cultural periods in Spanish history: the Siglo de Oro.

Siglo de Oro involucrado literature, drama, and art.

Felipe IV's son, Carlos II is known as "el Hechizado". Died and left no heir because no one wanted to marry and have children with him because he was crazy.

War of Spanish succession pitted royal families and their nations against each other to figure out who would rule Spain. War ends in 1713, Spain losing Gibraltar to the English. Felipe V, the Bourbon grandson of Louis XIV, becomes King of Spain. The Familia Bourbon l remains the royal family of Spain.

Competent rulers, but more concerned with life at court. Efforts to convert Spain into a modern state, based on Neoclassical ideas of the Enlightenment.

Carlos IV was the grandson of Felipe V (son of Carlos III). Total incompetence. Dealing with Napoleon leads to use of lots of dynamite

Rebellion of 2 May 1808 in Madrid begins War of Spanish Independence. Joseph Bonaparte removed from the throne of Spain in 1812. During the upheaval, most of the colonies in America gain independence. Constitution of 1812 establishes a Parliamentary Monarchy.

Fernando VII was the son of Carlos IV, returns from exile to rule after defeat of Napoleon's troops. Totalitarian rule, constantly at odds with liberals who wanted to expand on Constitution of 1812. Died in 1833, leaving only a daughter, Isabel.

The country is divided on the issue of a woman ruler. Supporters of Fernando’s brother, Carlos face off against more liberal supporters of Isabel in several “Guerras Carlistas”. Isabel II reigns from 1833-1868.

Isabel II rules through political turmoil, with the Carlists continually opposing her authority. The “Glorious Revolution” removing Isabel II from power in 1868. A short-lived experiment places King Amadeo de Saboya, an Italian, on the throne from 1870-1873.

The first Spanish Republic is proclaimed in 1873 and ends in 1874.

The Bourbons regresan to the throne with the reign of Alfonso XII from 1875- 1885, followed by his son Alfonso XIII from 1902-1931. Spain quickly begins a downslide, marked by the loss of it last remaining colonies in 1898 and embarrassing military defeats in Morocco.

Alfonso XIII was unable to put a stop to the political tension and low morale of the country, allows a military general to establish a dictatorship from 1923-1931. Dictatorship is unable to solve country's problems. !931, elections are held to determine if Spain should continue monarchy or try democracy.

Types of government Spain had: Monarchy, Parliamentary Monarchy, Totalitarian, Republic, Dictatorship

The Second Republic of Spain is established in 1931. They set up a new, progressive constitution, which gives women the right to vote, allows divorce, separates the Church from the State, and creates public schools.

The new government creates an even deeper political and social divide. The military, church, and the upper classes think there are too many changes going on (too many problems). Socialists and Communist factions think there are not enough changes and want more change, faster.

General Francisco Franco stages a military revolt in 1936, beginning the Civil War. Franco’s fascist troops are aided by forces from Germany and Italy. Republican forces get very little help. War ends in 1939, with Franco’s Nationalist forces winning.

Francisco Franco was a fascist dictator of Spain from 1939 until his death in 1975. Idealized “glory years” of Spain under Carlos V and Felipe II. Gender roles, religion, regionalism banned, censorship. People had to ask to broadcast something, if Franco said no, then they couldn’t. Those who did were killed. Exile of artists, intellectuals, scientists.

Basque terrorists group, ETA, assassinates Franco’s chosen successor. Upon Franco’s death in 1975, Juan Carlos I de Borbon becomes King of Spain. Instead of continuing Franco’s policies or establishing an absolute monarchy, Juan Carlos declares democracy in Spain. The period known as the Transition begins.

In 1978, Suarez is elected in the first elections held in Spain since 1936. In the 80’s Felipe Gonzalez leads Spain out of isolation, joining NATO and EU. Jose Maria Aznar increases Spain’s influence in world, with a growing economy and a strong alliance with the USA.

11-M: On March 11, 2004, Islamic fundamentalist terrorists place bombs on several commuter trains in Madrid, killing nearly 200 and injuring over 2000. Two days after the attack, Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero is the new Prime Minister of Spain. His first action was to withdraw Spanish troops from the US war with Iraq. Under his government, Spain joined several other European nations in legalizing same-sex marriages. He won re-election in 2008.

As a Parliamentary Monarchy, Spain retains its royal family, although all government decisions are handled by Parliament and the President of the Government.


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