Genetic Engineering: Success Criteria Harman and Rishi

I can use the scientific inquiry framework to research developing technologies related to systems biology

Genetic Engineering can take place in both plants and animals. For instance in plants, scientist use a variety of ways to Genetically Modify Plants. An example would be Crop breeding. Crop Breeding is when parts the DNA of one organism is extracted and combined with the DNA of another plant. However, farmers themselves use Herbicides and Pesticides. Herbicides are a chemical pesticide that is used to kill unwanted plants, such as weeds, but pesticide on the other hand is a substance used for destroying insects or other organisms harmful to cultivated plants or to animals. However, In animals, scientists use variety of methods called recombinant DNA technology, microinjection, bioballistics, electro and chemical poration which all perform the same task, identifying a trait of interest, isolating that trait, inserting that trait into a desired organism, and then propagating that organism.

I can use the scientific inquiry framework to communicate my understanding of the ethical issues related to a technological development in the field of systems biology (cloning, stem-cell research, live organ transplants, transgenic transplants) (ethical issues of cloning)

Genetic Engineering presents an exciting range of possibilities, from feeding the poor to preventing and treating diseases. Some of the issues that need to be considered before taking part in anything related with Genetic Engineering are things like, what are the long term affects, are there known health risks associated with it and lastly, is it safe? The answer to all these questions is unknown. For examples, in 1990, Jesse Gelsinger suffered from ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD), which is a rare metabolic disorder that prevents the body from breaking down ammonia. He had volunteered in an OTCD clinical trial at the University of Pennsylvania which he believed would help cure his disease. However, shortly after the researchers injected Gelsinger with the replacement genes his ammonia levels skyrocketed. Within a few days, he suffered brain damage and organ failure, and was in a coma. His family then removed him from life support. Jesse Gelsinger died a few days later. The story of Jesse Gelsinger can show you that you never know what can go wrong with Genetic Engineering.

Research Technologies Uses for Medical Imaging In Canada (X-Rays, Ultrasound, CT Scans, MRI, Microscopy)

Genetic Engineering has been around for many years. With Genetic Engineering, you never truly know what can go wrong inside either your body or in plants. Therefore, scientist have used a variety of medical technologies to help diagnosis and treat anything that goes wrong. Monoclonal antibodies, microscopy are two of the many examples on ways to diagnose the effects of Genetic Engineering. Monoclonal antibodies are when an antibody is produced by a single clone of cells. Monoclonal antibodies can be used to treat many diseases. However, the most effective method to diagnose any disease created by genetic engineering is the use of microscopes. An expert can look at cell or tissue samples under a microscope to determine whether there is an abnormality in the cells. The results from the microscopy, is then used to choose the best treatment (Usually removing the cells of the disease or the use of radiation).

Monoclonal antibodies

I can use the scientific inquiry framework to assess the importance/impact of technologies used in human health care for medical imaging in Canada for diagnosing/treating abnormalities in human tissues (x-rays, ultrasound, CT scans, MRI, microscopy)

Without the medical advances used in our world today, most diseases would not be curable. For instance, let's look at cancer patients. Doctors often protect patients, and give them antibiotics immediately after treatment. If those antibiotics weren't created or made, we get to the stage where we would have no suitable antibiotics. Doctors couldn’t knowingly give a patient chemotherapy that will destroy their immune system, when they don’t have anything to save them from subsequent infections. Famous German chemist Paul Ehrlich set about developing drugs to treat infectious diseases. He created the term “chemotherapy” and defined it as the use of chemicals to treat disease. Without the development of chemotherapy there would be no way of treating and helping the victims of the frightful diseases.

I can use the scientific inquiry framework to communicate my understanding of public health strategies related to systems biology. (cancer screening, vaccine programs)

Genetic Engineering is used in both plants and animals all over the world. Cells of an organism are being altered and/or replaced to change an external or internal feature. That being said, cells in the organism may not know how to react to the cells being formed or replaced in their environment. This procedure may provoke the surroundings of the cell in the formation of a new frightful disease. After all, that may not always be the case. Genetic Engineering is also benefiting others and is helping to cure certain diseases like HIV, Hemophilia and Familial hypercholesterolemia. Genetic engineering helps by replacing the contaminated cells with the cells or DNA from another organism. Genetic Engineering can further be used to change the physical features of an living organism as well. Things like altering the colour of your eyes, and the even the colour of your hair.

I can use the scientific inquiry framework to assess the impact that public health strategies related to systems biology has on society. (cancer screening, vaccine programs)

Public health programs are an organized way that offers the benefiting needs to a large population of people, including those who are identified as high risk, early treatment, and/or reproductive options. Some examples of health programs related to genetic engineering would be preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). PGD allows couples to ensure their offspring are unaffected by any diseases. This could end to the parents making a horrific decision regarding termination during pregnancy. For example, some parents might choose to undergo embryo screening to see the male/female embryos. By doing so, they can either decide if they want a girl or a boy by having more of a particular embryo (male/female depending on their choice)

PGD Picture

Solution to One Of its Problem

After looking at the problems genetic engineering creates, genetically modified foods is one of the main concerns. Genetically modified foods create the problems of: Creating new allergies/toxins, and Harm to the animals that consume them. However, these problems could be solved with two alternatives: crop breeding and agroecological farm management. Crop breeding consists of modifying the crops reproductive process to add/remove traits to benefit the society as a whole. As for agroecological farm management, it consists of practices that work with nature to avoid damaging the area like industrial agriculture (farms/ranches). Studies have proven that agro-ecological farm management can help benefit the world with losing any productivity or profitability. These solutions are less expensive than genetic modification and sometimes more effective. Although these alternatives are great solutions, industrial agriculture can ensure the products, seeds, and methods will continue to control the markets

Brief Lesson of Our Unit: Mitosis

The major purpose of mitosis is for growth and to replace worn out cells. During mitosis one cell divides to form two identical cells called daughter cells. Mitosis consists of 4 different stages: Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, but there is also another stage called cytokinesis (When the 2 daughter cells are formed). Prophase is when long strands of the DNA condense to form visible chromosomes. During prophase, the nuclear membrane breaks down as well. Next comes metaphase. Metaphase is when the chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell on spindle fibre tracks. Then comes Anaphase, which is the separation of the chromosomes and sister chromatids. Finally comes Telophase. Telophase is the final stage of mitosis and is where new nuclear membrane forms around eat set of daughter chromosomes and the 2 cells also appear to have two nuclei. These are the 4 stages in which cells are divided into 2 identical cells called daughter cells.

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