La Historia de España April Elliott - 8corazones

Spain - The Ancient Pit Stop

In this time period, many people consideraron Spain a great resting place. It was an area for people to stop and trade, or even repair and refuel their ships.

Pre-Roman Iberia

The Celtas were the first group invadir Spain and claimed the western portion. They were followed by the Iberos, who reclamados the eastern part. In the center was the first civilization to inhabit Spain, the Celtiberos.

The Romans Are Coming! The Romans Are Coming!

The Roman Empire was constantly expanding, giving it the power conquistar Spain without any resistance. Their goal was to destroy everything in sight. However, the Empire collapsed in 409 A.D.

Roman Leftovers

When the Roman Empire derrumbó, many things were left behind. Two such cities were Segovia and Merida. These cities left behind many structures and ways of life.

The Visigoths

In what is now known as Germany, a new group attempted to conquer Spain. They were called the Visigoths and they used the same method as previous groups to take control - asesinato.

The Moors

In 711 A.D., the Arabs, Berbers, and Syrians from North Africa invaded the Iberian Peninsula. They were being perseguidos and used Spain as a safe place. The Moors easily defeated the Visigoth Kingdom, conquering nearly all of the peninsula.

La Reconquista

La Reconquista was an almost continual fight between Christian Kingdoms north of the Iberian Peninsula and Muslims, who revisado the southern portion.

Santiago

Santiago was the patron saint of Spain. He was made famous by his war cry "Matamoros." This tradujo to "killing the Muslims."

Toledo - City of Tolerance

Many Jews, Christians, and Muslims used the city of Santiago as a safeplace. Influence of these three groups is still evident today. Some examples include synagogues, churches, cathedrals, and Arab style architecture.

The End of the Moors

By this time, the Moors had dividido into many small kingdoms. They thought that this would help keep as much control as possible. However, the last Moorish King was defeated and killed in Granada in January of 1492.

Reyes Catolicos

The first king of Spain was King Fernando of Aragon. His wife, Isabel of Castilla, was the first queen. The two casados in 1469, uniting Christian Kingdoms against the Moors. They solidificaron their power through religion and military success. King Fernando and Queen Isabel are responsible for the end of the Reconquista.

The Spanish Inquisition

When the last Moorish King was defeated in 1492, all Muslims remaining in Spain were forced to leave or convert to Christianity. In 1502, it was decided that all Jews need to leave or convert. One question remained: How do we know they've convertido? The answer was to interrogar and tortura the Jews and Muslims until they confessed. Another option was to put them on trial and later execute them.

Gold Diggers

A Spanish gold digger was someone who married for money and power. One well known example was Juana, the daughter of King Fernando and Queen Isabel. She married Felipe of the powerful Habsburg family. Juana became known as "La Loca" because legend has it that when Felipe died, she llevado his coffin through the streets and stopped frequently to beso the corpse.

Carlos I

Carlos I was the son of Juana and Felipe. He changed his name to Charles V of Austria / Germany. Under his rule, the Spanish Empire creció rapidly - Conquistas of Incas and Aztecs. Gold and silver inundado into Spain from the Americans along with new crops. Charles V used funds that were pouring in from Spanish colonies to pay for the many religious wars he was fighting across Europe. Spain at this time was a great defender of Catholicism, since they fought to stop the spread of the Protestant Reformation across Europe. He transmitido this legacy to his son, Felipe II.

Felipe II - Family Feud

Felipe II continued the guerra against the Protestants. In 1554, he married Mary Tudor of England in an attempt to create an international Catholic alianza. A male heir from this marriage would have become the King of England, however, there was no hijo and the Protestant Elizabeth I came to power in England.

La Leyenda Negra

La Leyenda Negra was known as the Black Legend. This was England and Portugal's way of getting back at Spain. It was propaganda to not travel to Spain. They talked about how nasty and sucio Spain was, trying to scare off visitors.

El Greco

El Greco was a pintor from Greece, and his real name was Domenikos Theotokopoulos. He traveled to Spain aspiring to work in the decoration of El Escorial, the palacio that Felipe II lived in. Unfortunately, Felipe hated his style and refused to hire him. So El Greco moved to Toledo and begins to paint imágenes making fun of Felipe II.

More Habsburg Kings

Felipe II was succeeded by his son, Felipe III. Felipe III dies and his son, Felipe IV, takes the trono. Felipe IV reigns over one of the richest cultural periods in Spanish history: The Siglo de Oro.

Siglo De Oro

El Siglo De Oro was a período of literatura, Drama, and Art in Spain. Many new works of art were being introduced. The famous character of Don Juan - the "Latin Lover" - was invented. One of the most famous libros written in this time was Don Quixote.

The End of the Habsburgs

Felipe IV's son Carlos II is known as the bewitched. This left many women not wanting to marry him. Without a wife, he would have no family successor to the throne. He died in 1700 with no heredero.

War of Spanish Succession

The War of Spanish Succession pitted royal familias and their naciones against each other to see who would rule Spain. The war ended in 1713 with Spain losing Gibraltar to the English. Felipe V, the Bourbon nieto of Louis XIV, becomes the King of Spain. The Bourbon family remains the royal family of Spain hoy.

The Bourbons

The Bourbons were competent reglas, but more concerned with life at the corte. They took many efforts to convert Spain into a modern state, based on Neoclassical ideas of the first Enlightenment.

The War of Spanish Independence

The Rebellion of 2 May 1808 in Madrid begins the War of Spanish Independence. Joseph Bonaparte is removed from the throne of Spain in 1812. During the convulsión, most of the colonies in America gain independencia. The Constitution of 1812 establishes a Parliamentary Monarchy.

Fernando VII

Fernando VII is the son of Carlos IV. He believed in a totalitarian rule, even though he was constantly at odds with liberals who wanted to expand on the Constitution of 1812. He died in 1833, leaving only one daughter named Isabel.

More Bourbon Troubles

Spain was divided on the issue of a woman ruler. The supporters of Fernando's brother, Carlos, face off against more liberal supporters of Isabel in several "Guerras Carlistas." Isabel ends up ruling from 1833-1856 through political turmoil and Carlists continually opposing her authority. The Glorious Revolution removes Isabel from power in 1868. The first Spanish Republic is proclaimed in 1873 when King Amadeo, an Italian, comes to rule. It ends in 1874.

Here We Go Again...

The Bourbons return to the throne with the reign of Alfonso XII, who is followed by his son Alfonso XIII. Since Alfonso XIII was born shortly after his father's death, his mother oversaw the government in the interim. In his years as ruler, he allowed a military general to establish a dictatorship from 1923-1931. The dictatorship was unable to solve the country's problems. In 1931, elections are help to determine if Spain should continue a monarchy or give democracy another try.

Let's Try This Again

The Second Republic of Spain is established in 1931, bring new hope and optimism. They set up a new progressive constitution, which gave women the right to vote, allowed divorces, separated Church from State, and created public schools. The new government invented an even deeper political and social divide. The military, the Church, and the Upper Class though that there were too many changes going on, while socialists and communists thought there weren't enough changes going on.

Civil War

General Francisco Franco stages a military revolt in 1936, beginning the Civil War. His troops were aided by forces from Germany and Italy, while the Republican forces received very little help. The war ended in 1939 with Franco's Nationalists winning.

Francisco Franco

Francisco Franco was the dictator of Spain from 1939 until his death in 1975. He idealized the "glory years" of Spain under Carlos V and Felipe II. There were now gender roles, regionalism banned, and censorship. Franco also exiled artists, intellectuals, and scientists.

One More Time...

Franco chose the grandson of Alfonso XIII to take over, but Basque terrorist group ETA assassinated him. Upon his death, Juan Carlos I de Bourbon becomes King of Spain, and declares democracy. He names Adolfo Suarez as the first Prime Minister, and Suarez begins the period known as "The Transition."

Democracy

In 1978, Suarez is elected in the first elections held in Spain since 1936. In the 80's, Felipe Gonzalez leads Spain out of isolation, joining NATO and the EU. Jose Maria Aznar increases Spain’s influence in the world, with a growing economy and a strong alliance with the USA.

11-M

On March 11, 2004, Islamic fundamentalist terrorists place bombs on several commuter trains in Madrid, killing nearly 200 and injuring over 2000.

A New Direction

Two days after the attack, elections proclaim Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero the new Prime Minister of Spain. His first action was to withdraw Spanish troops from the U.S. war with Iraq. He won re-election in 2008.

La Familia Real

As a parliamentary monarchy, Spain retains its royal family, although all government decisions are handled by Parliament and the President of the Government.

Credits:

Created with images by sermarr erGuiri - "Bandera de España" • inkflo - "trawler moored boat" • WikiImages - "romans gladiator spear" • kirkandmimi - "rome monument colosseum" • kevinpoh - "Toledo Cathedral" • transitpeople - "Walls of Ávila, Spain on Avenida de Madrid" • BarbeeAnne - "toledo spain europe" • Walt Stoneburner - "Bonfire" • Cea. - "[ G ] El Greco - Saint James the Greater (1610s)" • 50 Watts - "E. McKnight Kauffer, Don Quixote, 1948" • xovesphoto - "Fiesta de la batalla de Ponte Caldelas" • _dChris - "Hill 666"

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