A Stock is flavored liquidly soup. This forms the main dishes, particularly soups and sauces. Some uses with stock is that you can make a chicken stock. Which is common is most houses. People also add stock onto many dishes to add flavor.
White Stock is made from veal or chicken without colored seasing this is completely made with white sauce. This is commonly used to make chicken soup around the house.
Brown Stock is made from beef thus to give color and to form a mixture with the applications of food. The stock is typically used to form a good and flavorful type of meat.
A Fumet is a concentrated stock, this is typically seen more in fish, used for flavoring. This is also used for adding flavor. But most importantly the dishes are commonly used to make this are fish and mushrooms.
Court bouillon is made from wine and vegetables, typically used in fish dishes. As you can see in this from this dish this chicken is poured with some sauce and add flavor from the onions and greens.
Glace a reduced stock with a jelly-like consistency, made from brown stock, chicken stock, or fish stock. Glace is typically a dipping sauce for most foods. This is because it is designed to make extra flavor for the food if needed.
Remouillage a weak stock made from bones that have already been used in another preparation. It is sometimes used to replaces water that has been made from using stock within it.
Bouillon is liquid that results from simmering meats or vegetables, this is also referred to broth. Basically this is the quidley portion of the meats and vegetables that have been placed out.
Consommé is a clear soup made from concentrated stock. A common way to make this is by cooking up some meat adding flavor and taking it out and placing it onto a soup.
Purée soups are soups that are thickened by the starch and are found in the puréed. The main ingredient are also known to be in potatoes.
To better summarize all the Stocks and their purposes. I do believe that it is a key ingredient in cooking. Not only can you make simply and delicious meals, they add texture and flavor to foods. This is the most key concept in cooking. A food made so simple yet so flavorful that is what stock is, delicious meal made straight from home.