Protein Synthesis BY: taylor mcknight

Roles of DNA, mRNA, tRNA, rRNA

DNA- The main role of DNA in the cell is the long-term storage of information.

mRNA- The process of making a protein

tRNA- The job of tRNA is to read the message of nucleic acids, or nucleotides, and translate it into proteins, or amino acids.

rRNA- Associates with a set of proteins to form ribosomes.

DNA replication

step 1- Double-stranded DNA is untangled or unzipped by an enzyme called helicase, which opens up the two strands in one area at a time.

Step 2- Helicase cuts hydrogen bonds and separates DNA in half

Step 3- Single Strand Proteins attach to the halfs and keep the DNA molecules separated

Step 4- DNA polymerase attaches to DNA nucleotides and move along, It adds nucleotides to the half DNA molecules.

Step 5- The DNA is finally replicated and a new one is made.

Steps in transcription

Step 1- DNA unwinds

Step 2- One side of DNA "codes for a protein"

Step 3- Genetic code of DNA is attached to 3 nucleotides or bases

Step 4- Each has a specific job or coding for the amino acid.

Step 5- Sequence of codes on DNA will tell the amino acid sequence on the proteins that are being made

Step 6- The mRNA is now reading the code and mRNA passes out of the cytoplasm to the ribosome.

mRNA is to carry a coded message from the nucleus where the information is stored, to the cytoplasm where the coded message is translated into a specific protein. Each three-base stretch of mRNA (triplet) is known as a codon, and one codon contains the information for a specific amino acid.

Steps in translation

Step 1- mRNA attaches to the ribosome.

Step 2- tRNA's attach to free amino acids in the cytoplasmic of amino acids.

Step 3- tRNA carries its specific amino acid to the ribosome.

Step 4- tRNA "delivers" its amino acid based on complementary pairing of a triplet code (anticodon) with the triplet code (codon) of the mRNA.

Step 5- Enzyme "hooks" the amino acid to the last one in the chain forming a peptide bond

Step 6- Protein chain continues to grow as each tRNA brings in its amino acid and adds it to the chain.

Translation happens with the ribosomes, that are located in the cytoplasm of the cell.

Complementary nature

DNA- replication and transcription as it is a property shared between two DNA they do the same things all the time and it is in their nature to do so.

mRNA- The complementary nature is to carrie out information to each protein as to what it's role is.

tRNA- The complementary nature is to carrie amino acids to places directed by a three-nucleotide sequence they are necessary for translation.

Condon- A sequence of three nucleotides that together form a unit of genetic code in a DNA or RNA molecule. They are necessary for DNA and RNA to exist they give them genetic code with states what people will look like and what the cell's role is.

Anticodon- A sequence of three nucleotides forming a unit of genetic code in a transfer RNA molecule, corresponding to a complementary codon in messenger RNA. This is also necessary for both DNA and RNA to exit they give genetic information they are used to transfer the normal codon information.

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