Chapter 15 Biology Malcolm mccarvill and rYan muccini

What is PCR?

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a segment of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.

How does PCR work?

To amplify a segment of DNA using PCR, the sample is first heated so the DNA denatures, or separates into two pieces of single-stranded DNA. Next, an enzyme called Taq polymerase synthesizes two new strands of DNA, using the original strands as templates.

A real world example of PCR

DNA cloning for sequencing, DNA based phylogeny, or functional analysis of genes; the diagnosis of hereditary diseases; the identification of genetic fingerprints.

What is electricphoresis?

Electrophoresis is the movement of charged particles in a fluid or gel under the influence of an electric field.

How does Electrophoresis work?

Electrophoresis is is solution of DNA molecules is placed in a gel. Because each DNA molecule is negatively charged, it can be pulled through the gel by an electric field. Small DNA molecules move more quickly through the gel than larger DNA molecules.

Real world application of Electrophoresis

You can use electrophoresis in the process in which a scientist can determine what disease you may have.

What is DNA sequencing?

DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule. It includes any method or technology that is used to determine the order of the four bases, adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine in a strand of DNA.

Real world application of DNA sequencing

The Human Genome Project achieved the complete sequencing of the three billion base pairs of the human genome.

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