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中共国如何监视世界 【中英对照翻译】

新闻来源:Technology Review《技术评论》;作者:Mara Hvistendahl;发布时间:August 19, 2020 / 2020年8月19日

翻译/简评:Linda Black;校对:leftgun;审核:海阔天空 ;Page:拱卒

简评:

马拉·维斯滕达尔,美国作家对澳大利亚战略政策研究所的萨曼莎·霍夫曼的采访,讲诉了中共用举国之力、强大的国家资本为支撑的GTCOM(中译语通科技股份有限公司)在全球收集数据和信息的量之大超过常人的想象, 每年收集到的数据相当于200亿张Facebook的照片。本文的作者担心将来中共会利用数据操纵和控制民主制度的国家。Tiktok也把使用者的面部数据传输到位于中共国的服务器,这将被用来开发人脸识别。如果西方各国现在不采取措施制止,将来全球都会变成中共控制下的国家,个人隐私和言论自由被毁坏殆尽,独裁政权控制全球,每个人都会变成现代高科技的奴隶。如果有人讨论政府有错,就会失去工作和生活保障。美国将不再是美国,澳大利亚也不再是澳大利亚。美国下一步对阿里云计算的禁运制裁,和微软可能发生的对中共国禁止使用WINDOW的制裁,都将对中共国的数据收集和企图控制全球的野心产生毁灭性的打击。

原文翻译:

How China surveils the world

中共国如何监视世界

The government taps into a vast global array of data sources through partnerships with both foreign and domestic firms.

(中共国)政府通过与国内外公司的合作伙伴关系来利用庞大的全球数据源。

China doesn’t only collect enormous amounts of data on its own citizens: it also sucks up data from around the world that might one day be useful for its national security, using both domestic and foreign companies as conduits. Samantha Hoffman of the Australian Strategy Policy Institute, one of the leading experts on the Chinese surveillance state, shed light on this phenomenon last year with a report, “Engineering Global Consent,” that focuses on GTCOM, one of the state-owned firms at the heart of China’s global data-gathering strategy. This interview has been condensed and edited for clarity.

中共国不仅收集自己公民的大量数据:它还利用国内外公司作为渠道,从世界各地收集可能有一天对中共国家安全有用的数据。澳大利亚战略政策研究所的萨曼莎·霍夫曼(Samantha Hoffman)是中共国监视状态的领先专家之一,去年她通过“建构全球同意”报告阐明了这一现象,该报告的重点是GTCOM(中译语通科技股份有限公司),该公司是中国全球数据收集战略核心的国有企业之一。为了简明扼要,本次采访进行了浓缩和编辑。

Samantha Hoffman (Photo:ROHAN THOMSON 摄影:罗汉·汤姆森)

Q: How does the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) collect data?

问:中国共产党(CCP)如何收集数据?

A: The data used by the Party comes in many forms, including text, images, video, and audio. Inside China, accessing this data is straightforward. To get access to global data, the Party uses state-owned enterprises, both Chinese and foreign tech firms, and partners such as university researchers.

答:该党使用的数据有多种形式,包括文本、图像、视频和音频。在中共国内部,访问这些数据非常简单。 为了获得全球数据,该党使用了中外科技公司等国有企业以及大学研究人员等合作伙伴。

The CCP doesn’t only collect data through invasive surveillance technologies like cameras that employ facial recognition. It also relies on technologies that provide everyday services, like devices associated with smart cities. Long before AI or “big data” became buzzwords, the Party’s intent was to co-opt—not simply coerce—society to participate in its own control.

CCP不仅通过侵入性监视技术(例如采用面部识别的相机)收集数据。它还依赖于提供日常服务的技术,例如与智慧城市相关的设备。在AI或“大数据”成为流行语之前很久,共产党的意图是让社会(合作而不只是强迫)参与对社会的控制。

Q: What is the CCP doing with all of this data?

问:CCP如何处理所有这些数据?

A: The CCP collects data in bulk and worries about what to do with it later. Even if it’s not all immediately usable, the Party anticipates better technical ability to exploit the data later on.

答:CCP会批量收集数据,如何利用这些数据以后再作打算。 即使不是全部立即可用,该党也期望有更高的技术能力可以在以后利用这些数据。

Large data sets can reveal patterns and trends in human behavior, which help the CCP with intelligence and propaganda as well as surveillance. Some of that data is fed into tools such as the social credit system. Bulk data, like images and voice data, can also be used to train algorithms for facial and voice recognition.

大数据集可以揭示人类行为的模式和趋势,从而帮助中共提供情报,宣传和监视。其中一些数据被输入到诸如社会信用系统之类的工具中。像图像和语音数据一样的批量数据也可以用于训练面部和语音识别算法。

The CCP’s methods are not that different from what we see in the global advertising industry. But instead of trying to sell a product, the CCP is trying to exert authoritarian control. It’s using capitalism as a vehicle to access data that can help it disrupt democratic processes and create a more favorable global environment for its power.

CCP的方法与我们在全球广告业中看到的方法没有什么不同。但是中共没有销售产品,而是试图施加专制的控制。它以资本主义为载体来访问数据,以帮助其破坏民主进程并为其权力创造更有利的全球环境。

Q: Why is this a threat outside China?

问:为什么这是对中共国以外(其他国家)的威胁?

A: Citizens of liberal democracies are rightly concerned with how tech companies abuse their data, but at least in liberal democracies there are growing restraints on how data is used. In China, where the party-state literally says that the purpose of the law is to “strengthen and improve the Party’s leadership,” technology is deployed to extend the political power of the party-state and developed according to that standard. The Party talks about its intent to shape global public opinion in order to protect and expand its own political power. At the same time, Chinese tech companies collect data in support of such efforts. Anyone living in a liberal democracy should be concerned about the ramifications this has for freedoms and privacy.

答:自由民主国家的公民正确地关心科技公司如何滥用其数据,但至少在自由民主国家中,对如何使用数据的限制越来越大。在中共国,党国明确地说法律的目的是“加强和改善党的领导能力”,因此采用了技术来扩展党国的政治权力,并根据该标准进行发展。该党谈论了其塑造全球公众舆论以保护和扩大其自身政治权力的意图。同时,中共国科技公司收集数据以支持此类工作。生活在自由民主制国家中的任何人都应该关注这对自由和隐私的影响。

Q: So should we all delete TikTok from our phones?

问:那么我们都应该从手机中删除TikTok吗?

A: I will not put it on mine. TikTok is a good example of a seemingly benign app that can give the CCP a lot of useful data. You wouldn’t think of a social-media app that is used by a lot of children around the world as being inherently problematic for political reasons. But the sentiment data from an app like TikTok can be used to understand how people are influenced and how they think. A lawsuit recently filed against the company in California alleges that face data collected from the app was connected to PRC [People’s Republic of China]–based servers, raising significant privacy concerns.

答:我不会把它安装在我的手机上。TikTok是一个很好的例子,看似无害的应用程序可以为CCP提供很多有用的数据。您不会想到,由于政治原因,世界上许多儿童使用的社交媒体应用程序本身就存在问题。但是,来自TikTok之类的应用程序中的情感数据可以用来了解人们如何受到影响以及他们的想法。最近在加利福尼亚州针对该公司提起的诉讼称,从该应用程序收集的面部数据已连接到位于中国(中华人民共和国)的服务器,从而引发了严重的隐私问题。

TikTok has said that it stores user data in servers located in the US and Singapore, but this is a way of evading questions about the Party’s potential political control over the company. Additionally, the app has been found censoring or suppressing Black Lives Matter and LGBTQ content, among other subjects. To me this has happened frequently enough around the world to look like a pattern rather than a mistake, and this is a wrong that I cannot overlook.

TikTok曾表示,它将用户数据存储在位于美国和新加坡的服务器中,但这是一种逃避有关该党潜的在对公司政治控制问题的方式。 此外,还发现该应用程序审查或禁止了“黑命贵”和LGBTQ内容。《译者注:LGBT(或GLBT)是代表同性恋,男同性恋,双性恋和变性者的缩写。》对我来说,这种情况在全球经常发生,以至于看起来像是一种模式而不是一个错误,这是一个我不能忽视的错误。

Q: Can you explain why you are concerned about GTCOM, a little-known Chinese company you’ve studied?

问:您能解释一下为什么您为何对GTCOM(中译语通科技股份有限公司)感到担忧吗?一个你进行了研究,鲜为人知的公司?

A: GTCOM is a big-data and AI company that is controlled by China’s Central Propaganda Department, which is deeply involved in Party attempts to shift the global narrative around China’s power. One of their products claims to collect 10 terabytes of data a day, or two to three petabytes per year, from web pages, forums, Twitter, Facebook, WeChat, and other sources. In terms of size, that’s the equivalent of 20 billion Facebook photos. The company describes its work as contributing directly to China’s national security, including military intelligence and propaganda.

答:GTCOM(中译语通科技股份有限公司)是一家由中共国中央宣传部控制的大数据和AI公司,该公司深入参与了党的尝试,来改变全球对中共的力量的表述。他们的一种产品声称每天从网页,论坛,Twitter,Facebook,微信和其他来源收集10 TB的数据,或每年收集2-3 PB的数据。就大小而言,相当于200亿张Facebook照片。该公司将其工作描述为直接为中共国的国家安全做出了贡献,包括军事情报和宣传。

GTCOM’s research and development arm has developed algorithms that look for military keywords in the information it collects, which could for instance come from CVs or patents. The company has specifically stated that its work assists with state security. In 2017, a senior executive said that GTCOM had established an information security system that relies on image, text, and voice recognition to “prevent security risks” and “provide technical support and assistance for state security.”

GTCOM(中译语通科技股份有限公司)的研发部门已经开发出算法,可以在收集到的信息中寻找军事关键词,这些关键词可能来自简历或专利。该公司明确表示其工作有助于国家安全。2017年,一位高级主管说,GTCOM(中译语通科技股份有限公司)建立了一个依赖于图像,文本和语音识别的信息安全系统,以“预防安全风险”并“为国家安全提供技术支持和协助。”

Q: What about GTCOM’s work overseas?

问:GTCOM在海外的工作如何?

A: GTCOM has strong relationships with Chinese tech companies that have a large global presence. For instance, it has a strategic agreement with Alibaba Cloud to embed its translation services in the company’s technology. GTCOM’s service-providing business model allows it to collect any data that GTCOM translation services generate. At face value, it might look like its services are used to improve translation quality, but in reality they are also used to build other products, including products connected to national security work.

GTCOM(中译语通科技股份有限公司)与在全球拥有大量业务的中共国科技公司有着牢固的关系。例如,它与阿里云达成了一项战略协议,将其翻译服务嵌入该公司的技术中。GTCOM(中译语通科技股份有限公司)提供服务的业务模型使它可以收集GTCOM翻译服务生成的任何数据。从表面上看,它的服务似乎可以用来提高翻译质量,但实际上,它们还可以用来构建其他产品,包括与国家安全工作相关的产品。

GTCOM has established partnerships with linguistics researchers worldwide. These partnerships give GTCOM access to a broad variety of data. What GTCOM is doing is not dissimilar to [American analytics company] Palantir in terms of big-data analytics. The difference is that the intent driving GTCOM’s work is framed by the CCP, whose interests run counter to those of a liberal democracy.

GTCOM(中译语通科技股份有限公司)已与全球语言学研究人员建立了合作关系。这些伙伴关系使GTCOM(中译语通科技股份有限公司)可以访问各种数据。在大数据分析方面,GTCOM所做的与[美国分析公司] Palantir并无不同。不同之处在于推动GTCOM工作的意图是由中共制定的,其利益与自由民主制国家的利益背道而驰。

Q: What should we do about all this?

问:我们应该怎么做?

A: Ideal solutions don’t exist yet, partly because research on these issues hasn’t been in-depth or forward-looking. But we can start with greater investment in data literacy and data transparency programs. Liberal democracies must improve due diligence around security in the digital supply chain, invest in research and development, and become more competitive in the smart technologies market. They cannot go at this alone; alliances must be strengthened. Finally, liberal democratic governments must bolster data privacy laws and rethink how to manage propaganda from both foreign and domestic sources in the digital age—but without compromising democratic values along the way. To do that, they must be clear about what their values are and why they differ from those of authoritarian regimes.

答:理想的解决方案尚不存在,部分原因是对这些问题的研究尚未深入或具有前瞻性。但是,我们可以从对数据素养和数据透明度程序的更大投资开始。自由民主制国家必须改善对数字供应链中安全性的尽职调查,投资于研发,并在智能技术市场上更具竞争力。他们不能一个人做这项工作。 必须加强同盟。最后,自由民主政府必须支持数据隐私法,重新考虑如何在数字时代管理来自国内外的宣传,但同时又不能损害民主价值观。为此,他们必须清楚其价值观是什么,以及为什么它们与独裁政权不同。

编辑:【喜马拉雅战鹰团】Edited by:【Himalaya Hawk Squad】