Oceans By: Mia Purcell

Seawater:Don't drink the water!

Salt in the ocean comes from rocks on land. The rain that falls on the land contains some dissolved carbon dioxide from the surrounding air. ... Sodium and Chloride are 'salty.' The concentration of salt in seawater is about 35 parts per thousand. Human kidneys can only make urine that is less salty than salt water. Therefore, to get rid of all the excess salt taken in by drinking seawater, you have to urinate more water than you drank. Eventually, you die of dehydration even as you become thirstier.

Why the ocean is important to life on Earth.

Oceans are the lifeblood of planet Earth and humankind. They flow over nearly three-quarters of our planet, and hold 97% of the planet's water. They produce more than half of the oxygen in the atmosphere, and absorb the most carbon from it.

How ocean current is related to the Earth's climate

The world’s ocean is crucial to heating the planet. While land areas and the atmosphere absorb some sunlight, the majority of the sun’s radiation is absorbed by the ocean. Particularly in the tropical waters around the equator, the ocean acts a as massive, heat-retaining solar panel. Earth’s atmosphere also plays a part in this process, helping to retain heat that would otherwise quickly radiate into space after sunset. The ocean doesn't just store solar radiation; it also helps to distribute heat around the globe. When water molecules are heated, they exchange freely with the air in a process called evaporation. Ocean water is constantly evaporating, increasing the temperature and humidity of the surrounding air to form rain and storms that are then carried by trade winds, often vast distances. In fact, almost all rain that falls on land starts off in the ocean. The tropics are particularly rainy because heat absorption, and thus ocean evaporation, is highest in this area.

The sun rising over the Atlantic ocean.

The Zones

The Sunlight Zone: The Sunlight zone is the first layer. The sunlight zone is the area between 0m and 200m beneath the surface of the sea and is home to endless quantities of life. The sunlight zone is where microscopic organisms are able to convert the Sun's energy through photosynthesis. This zone gets the most sunlight, making plants plentiful. Common animals here include seals,sea turtles, sea lions, manta rays, and sharks.

The Sunlight Zone

The Twilight Zone: The Twilight zone is next. The middle layer of the world's oceans receives only faint, filtered sunlight during the daytime. This is because the seawater absorbs the sunlight. This barely-lit ocean layer is called the twilight zone or the disphotic zone (disphotic means "poorly lit" in Greek) or the mesopelagic zone (mesopelagic means "middle sea"). This zone appears deep blue to black in color. The depth of this zone depends on the clarity or murkiness of the water. In clear water, the disphotic zone can begin at depths up to 600 feet; in murky water, it can start at only 50 feet deep. It is usually begins somewhere between these two extremes. The disphotic zone extends to about 3,300 feet (about 1,000 m) deep (this is where the aphotic zone begins). On average, this zone extends from 660 to 3,300 feet (200 to 1,000 m). In the disphotic zone, there is enough light to see during the day, but not enough light for photosynthesis to take place, so no plants live in this zone. The amount of light decreases with depth. Because of this, food is not abundant. Only dim light reaches this region of the ocean. Here, no plants grow. Residents of this zone include jellyfish, octopuses, and squid.

The Twilight Zone

The Midnight Zone: The middle layer is the Midnight Zone. is the part of the pelagic zone that extends from a depth of 1000 to 4000 meters (3300 to 13000 feet) below the ocean surface. It lies between the mesopelagic above, and the abyssopelagic below. This area of the deep sea doesn't get any sunlight. Some of the animals that live here lack eyes. Viperfish, angelfish, snipe eel, and tripod fish can be found in this zone.

The Midnight Zone

The Abyss Zone: The fourth layer is the Abyss Zone. At depths of 4,000 to 6,000 metres (13,123 to 19,685 feet), this zone remains in perpetual darkness and never receives daylight. The abyss is often used to describe the deep sea in general. But the abyss is also a zone far down in the ocean. Most creatures living here lack a backbone, like sea spiders. Other residents include blind shrimp and hagfish.

Squid swimming in the Abyss Zone

The Hadal Zone: The Hadal zone is the final zone. It is the deepest layer. Also known as the hadopelagic zone and trench zone, delineation is the for the deepest trenches in the ocean. This zone is found from a depth of around 6,000 metres (20,000 ft) to the bottom of the ocean. Extreme depths of the this ocean zone are found mostly in deep-water trenches and canyons. Water temperatures are barely above freezing. Still, some life exists her, including sea cucumbers.

Pressure, temperature, and ocean depth: Pressure in the Ocean Pressure increases with ocean depth. Pisces V is a three-person submersible that can operate at depths up to 6,500 feet . This vehicle allows scientists to observe the deep sea under tremendous ocean pressure. At sea level, the air that surrounds us presses down on our bodies at 14.5 pounds per square inch . Temperatures in the oceans Ocean water, with an average salinity of 35 psu, freezes at -1.94 degrees Celsius (28.5 degrees Fahrenheit). That means at high latitudes sea ice can form. The average temperature of the ocean surface waters is about 17 degrees Celsius (62.6 degrees Fahrenheit). Ocean depth The deepest part of the ocean is called the Challenger Deep and is located beneath the western Pacific Ocean in the southern end of the Mariana Trench, which runs several hundred kilometers southwest of the U.S. territorial island of Guam. Challenger Deep is approximately 36,200 feet deep.

Ocean resources: It provides a treasured source of recreation for humans. It is mined for minerals such as salt, sand, gravel, and some manganese, copper, nickel, iron, and cobalt can be found in the deep sea and drilled for crude oil. The ocean plays a critical role in removing carbon from the atmosphere and providing oxygen. Also people go fishing for fish and sell fish.

Credits:

Created with images by Pok_Rie - "wave water ocean" • Unsplash - "jellyfish underwater ocean" • PublicDomainPictures - "abstract aqua background" • tpsdave - "california sunset dusk" • Graham Cook - "Waves crashing at Iluka" • paul bica - "moonlight shadow" • Dtoth2517 - "DSC_2970redone" • Dtoth2517 - "DSC_3940redone" • Unsplash - "water sea churning" • Pexels - "beach man ocean" • CindyTunstall - "Beautiful ocean waves" • 3025332 - "ocean sea water" • diego_torres - "sunset ocean wales" • skeeze - "world earth planet" • James St. John - "Diploria strigosa (symmetrical brain coral) (San Salvador Island, Bahamas) 1" • NOAA Photo Library - "reef3859" • NeuPaddy - "wave atlantic pacific" • olafpictures - "portugal olhao fishing" • Pexels - "stones ground gravel" • tpsdave - "california sunset dusk"

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