The theme in David and Goliath, that Malcolm Gladwell shows throughout the book in many different ways, is that people, even though they may seem to be huge underdogs, or facing an immense difficulty, your biggest disadvantages, may actually be your largest advantage. Also, what might seem like an advantage, may not be helpful at all.
Just because a classroom environment may look productive to most people, in fact, according to experts like teachers and psychologists, information may not be being learned as well as it seems to be. Introducing seemingly counter-intuitive difficulties may help learning be more effective.
Using Testing as a Learning Tool
How Spacing Can Help Long Term Memory Retention
Watch from 1:11 to 1:45
Feedback, is it always a good thing?
Reflection - Providing Cognitive Dissonance
Providing Cognitive dissonance to a reader is a very challenging task. What makes it easier is to look, as we have also been studying, through multiple perspectives. By doing this, we may be able to combine those perspectives to see information through a new and different lens and so show that Cognitive Dissonance. Looking for cognitive dissonance often requires you to give up what you previously thought new knew and dig deep for resources about a topic
Baldwin, Mike. “Cornered.” CartoonStock.
Belluck, Pam. “To Really Learn, Quit Studying and Take a Test.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 20 Jan. 2011, www.nytimes.com/2011/01/21/science/21memory.html. This article is published By Pam Bullock, and author for the New York times, so this is a known newspaper and reliable source
Bjork, Robert A. “Forgetting Is a Friend of Learning.” Teaching in Higher Ed, teachinginhighered.com/podcast/cognitive-psychology/.
Bjork, Robert A. “Quote about Teaching.” Teaching in Higher Ed, teachinginhighered.com/podcast/cognitive-psychology/.
Bjork, Robert Allen. “Desirable Difficulties Perspective on Learning.” bjorklab.psych.ucla.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/13/2016/07/RBjork_inpress.pdf. It is a .edu and says it is published by UCLA, the author, Bjork, has written several other articles on the topic, that he seems to be the primary expert on. The content is purposeful and relevant, it mentions several studies. It is unbiased. It is totally unbiased and purely factual. It is a PDF and very clear, no ads, good grammar, and easy to read, it is clear and interesting
“Boy Studying for Test.” Sites at Penn State, Penn State, 3 Dec. 2015, sites.psu.edu/siowfa15/category/uncategorized/page/13/.
“‘Desirable Difficulties’ Can Lead to Deeper Learning and Better Retention.” "Desirable Difficulties" Can Lead to Deeper Learning and Better Retention | Tomorrow's Professor Postings, Stanford University, tomprof.stanford.edu/posting/1419.
Didau, Https://www.facebook.com/learningspy David. “Force Fed Feedback: Is Less More?” David Didau: The Learning Spy, 26 Jan. 2014, www.learningspy.co.uk/featured/reducing-feedback-might-increase-learning/. This article seems like it may be a blog, however it brings in specific charts and evidence to support the point. The content could be biased, as research on the author shows, however the information is factual, purposeful, and the research and studies are relevant. There are no ads on the website and the grammar and spelling is fine. It is interesting and easy to read.
Ebbinghaus. “Typical Forgetting Curve For Newly Learned Information.” Wranx, teachinginhighered.com/podcast/cognitive-psychology/.
“End the Madness.” Common Dreams, 13 Mar. 2015, www.commondreams.org/views/2015/03/13/how-we-end-war-over-standardized-testing.
Fortune 500 Company, Manager. “Quote about Feedback.” The People Equation, 22 Apr. 2013, people-equation.com/are-you-using-the-good-copbad-cop-feedback-method/.
Gocognitive. “Robert Bjork - Spacing Improves Long-Term Retention.” YouTube, YouTube, 13 July 2012, www.youtube.com/watch?v=TTo35X2rqls.
Https://www.facebook.com/learningspy. “Deliberately Difficult - Why It's Better to Make Learning Harder.” David Didau: The Learning Spy, David Didau, 13 Oct. 2013, www.learningspy.co.uk/featured/deliberately-difficult-focussing-on-learning-rather-than-progress/. This article seems like it may be a blog, however it brings in specific charts and evidence to support the point. But the author seems unbiased and has written several books. The content could be biased, as research on the author shows, however the information is factual, purposeful, and the research and studies are relevant. There are no ads on the website and the grammar and spelling is fine. It is interesting and easy to read.
Johansson, Frans. “The Best Ideas Emerge When Very Different Perspectives Meet.” Fancy Quotes, quotefancy.com/frans-johansson-quotes.
Kang, Sean H. K. “Spaced Repetition Promotes Efficient and Effective Learning: Policy Implications for Instruction.” Spaced Repetition Promotes Efficient and Effective Learning: Policy Implications for Instruction, 2016, www.dartmouth.edu/~cogedlab/pubs/Kang(2016,PIBBS).pdf.
Lahey, Jessica. “Students Should Be Tested More, Not Less.” The Atlantic, Atlantic Media Company, 21 Jan. 2014, www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2014/01/students-should-be-tested-more-not-less/283195/.
Linn, Maria C, and Robert A Bjork. “The Science of Learning and the Learning of Science.” Association for Psychological Science, www.psychologicalscience.org/observer/the-science-of-learning-and-the-learning-of-science#.WG0A8BsrJeV. The author is credible because he has written several other articles on the same topic, both authors work at major universities including the University of California, LA psych department. There are specific details about my topic, it seems to be unbiased and it mentions several studies both in real classrooms and in labs. The purpose of the site is purely to inform, so there are no ads except about related articles, which have proved useful. The grammar is fine and it uses complex vocabulary.
“A+ Paper.” Icarus Editing Writers Blog, quotefancy.com/frans-johansson-quotes.
Pillars, Wendi. “3 Ways to Use Testing as a Learning Tool.” Education Week Teacher, 29 Apr. 2016, www.edweek.org/tm/articles/2015/05/12/3-ways-to-use-testing-as-a.html. This website is a .org, which is not always reliable, however it is a magazine about education, the date of publication was in 2015, so it is pretty recent, the writer is an experienced teacher. It references to several studies, and seems to be unbiased toward either side There are a few ads but they do not affect the fluency, it is easy to read and is a magazine article. So the grammar is fine
“SHHH!!! Testing In Progress.” Student Handouts, www.studenthandouts.com/01-Web-Pages/2013-07/shhh-testing-in-progress-classroom-door-sign.htm.
Stafford, Tom. “BBC - Future - Memory: Why Cramming for Tests Often Fails.” BBC News, BBC, www.bbc.com/future/story/20140917-the-worst-way-to-learn. BBC, that's all we really need to know, it is known to be a reliable source
“White House Tells States to Give Students Fewer Tests.” Newsela | White House Tells States to Give Students Fewer Tests, 5 Feb. 2106, newsela.com/articles/schools-tests/id/14740/.
Gladwell, Malcom. “David And Goliath Book Cover.” The Wall Street Journal, 28 May 2013, blogs.wsj.com/speakeasy/2013/05/28/exclusive-first-look-malcolm-gladwells-new-book-cover/.