Tuberculosis Sijad Aslam

1) How Many People Have Tuberculosis Now? How Many Died/Suffered From Tuberculosis?

"In 2015, 10.4 million people fell ill with TB and 1.8 million died from the disease (including 0.4 million among people with HIV). Over 95% of TB deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. Six Countries account for 60% of the total, with India leading, coming up next is Indonesia, China, Nigeria, Pakistan, and South Africa" (World Health Organization).

People who have HIV, have 20 to 30 times more of a higher chance of getting Tuberculosis.

A person infected by TB bacteria has 10% lifetime risk of falling ill of TB.

"TB incidence has fallen by an average of 1.5% per year since 2000. This needs to accelerate to a 4–5% annual decline to reach the 2020 milestones of the 'End TB Strategy'" (World Health Organization).

"An estimated 49 million lives were saved through TB diagnosis and treatment between 2000 and 2015" (World Health Organization).

2) How Many Had Tuberculosis Before? How Many Died/Suffered From Tuberculosis?

"During the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, tuberculosis (TB) was the leading cause of death in the United States, and one of the most feared diseases in the world" (University of Virginia).

"In the 18th century in Western Europe, tuberculosis reached its peak with a prevalence as high as 900 deaths per 100,000" (New Medical Life Sciences).

"It was estimated that, at the turn of the century, 450 Americans died of tuberculosis every day, most between ages 15 and 44...Those who survived their first bout with the disease were haunted by severe recurrences that destroyed any hope for an active life" ( University of Virginia).

3) Anatomy/Phyiology of Tuberculosis

Anatomy: "Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a prototrophic, metabolically flexible bacteria" (National Institute of Health). "Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The infection most often affects the lungs but may involve any organ. TB is spread from person to person, usually through the air, when a person with active disease coughs and sprays the bacteria into the air" (National Jewish Health).

Physiology:"Cough, Weight loss/anorexia, Fever, Night sweats, Hemoptysis, Chest pain (can also result from tuberculous acute pericarditis), Fatigue, Headache that has been either intermittent or persistent for 2-3 weeks, Subtle mental status changes that may progress to coma over a period of days to weeks, Low-grade or absent fever, Back pain or stiffness, Lower-extremity paralysis, in as many as half of patients with undiagnosed Pott disease, Tuberculous arthritis, usually involving only 1 joint (most often the hip or knee, followed by the ankle, elbow, wrist, and shoulder), Flank pain, Dysuria, Frequent urination, In men, a painful scrotal mass, prostatitis, orchitis, or epididymitis, In women, symptoms mimicking pelvic inflammatory disease, Nonhealing ulcers of the mouth or anus, Difficulty swallowing (with esophageal disease), Abdominal pain mimicking peptic ulcer disease (with gastric or duodenal infection), Malabsorption (with infection of the small intestine), Pain, diarrhea, or hematochezia (with infection of the colon), Abnormal breath sounds, especially over the upper lobes or involved areas, Rales or bronchial breath signs, indicating lung consolidation, Confusion, Coma, Neurologic deficit, Chorioretinitis, Lymphadenopathy, Cutaneous lesions" (Web MD).

4) Vaccination

The vaccine for Tuberculosis is live (World Health Organization).

"American Indians or Alaska Natives: 6.1 TB cases per 100,000 persons, Asians: 18.2 TB cases per 100,000 persons, Blacks or African Americans: 5.0 TB cases per 100,000 persons, Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders: 18.2 TB cases per 100,000 persons, Hispanics or Latinos: 4.8 TB cases per 100,000 persons, Whites: 0.6 TB cases per 100,000 persons" (Centers For Disease Control and Prevention).

5) Pictures of Tuberculosis

Lung That Has Been Infected with Tuberculosis.
Strong Majority That Are Infected By Tuberculosis Are From Asia
Strong Majority of US Born Infected With Tuberculosis Is African American People

6) Statement

Tuberculosis is a horrific bacteria that sadly infects a majority of Asian Countries, such as Indonesia, Pakistan, and many more. Those unfortunate countries do not have the means and power to help all of their citizens because they are not as well-established like the U.K. and the U.S. no only that they do not have any medical procedures that are helpful. I do believe Tuberculosis will hopefully be fully eradicated by 2030, but I would love to see this malicious bacteria gone before then. But if you have the means to get vaccinated it would be highly recommend to be vaccinated so you do not have to go through the troubles once you have been affected by Tuberculosis.

Citation

"Fact Sheet." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 29 Nov. 2016. Web. 17 Jan. 2017.

"Tuberculosis." Tuberculosis: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Jan. 2017.

Bernstein, Lisa. "What Is Tuberculosis? Picture, Diagnosis, Causes." WebMD. WebMD, 18 Mar. 2015. Web. 16 Jan. 2017.

"Early Research and Treatment of Tuberculosis in the 19th Century." American Lung Association Crusade. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Jan. 2017.

Tuberculosis, Research On. "Anatomy and Physiology - Tuberculosis." Anatomy and Physiology - Tuberculosis. N.p., 01 Jan. 1970. Web. 16 Jan. 2017.

Aznar, Dennica Joy. "TUBERCULOSIS." TUBERCULOSIS. N.p., 01 Jan. 1970. Web. 16 Jan. 2017.

Cashin-Garbutt, April. "History of Tuberculosis." News-Medical.net. N.p., 03 Feb. 2014. Web. 16 Jan. 2017.

"TB Incidence in the United States, 1953-2015." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 26 Dec. 2016. Web. 16 Jan. 2017.

"Tuberculosis (TB)." World Health Organization. World Health Organization, n.d. Web. 16 Jan. 2017.

"Vaccines.gov." U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, n.d. Web. 16 Jan. 2017.

"CONTENT." MODULE 2 – Live Attenuated Vaccines (LAV) - WHO Vaccine Safety Basics. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Jan. 2017.

Marshall, ByHelen. "BCG Vaccine SSI." Netdoctor. N.p., 07 May 2015. Web. 16 Jan. 2017.

Kozakiewicz, Lee, Jiayao Phuah, JoAnne Flynn, and John Chan. "The Role of B Cells and Humoral Immunity in Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection."Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2013. Web. 16 Jan. 2017.

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