Galileo Galilei Scientist of the renaissance

Galileo was born in February 15, 1564 in Pisa, and was the oldest of 5 siblings, Michelagnolo, Livia, Giulia, Virginia, and Benedetto Galilei. Galileo's father, Vincenzio Galilei, was a cloth merchant, but also a composer and started Galileo on his path of science. Galileo's father taught Galileo how to play the Lute (A string instrument similar to a present day guitar) He also taught him how to play the Organ. His father taught Galileo the science of sound.

At the left, there is an Organ, then in the middle, there is a Lute, and at the right, there is a picture of sound waves

His father also showed to Galileo that he should ask questions. A lot of people in these days would just accept any theories that did not have any ideas against the Catholic Church's beliefs (The Catholic Church's beliefs were the beliefs of the people of Rome, who were mostly or all Catholic. Rome was very ,very powerful at that time, and anything against them could result in prison, or worse.) When Galileo grew up, he was known as "Il Attaccabrighe" - "The Wrangler" (Latin) Because he asked so many questions. Cloth Merchants usually made more money that musicians and composers. The Galilei's were a rich aristocratic Italian family, and they were expected to stay rich. But Galileo's father went more towards the music side and started making less money and less money until it was starting to get hard to live in the manner that was expected of them. By this time, Galileo was ten years old. His father had paid many tutors to teach Galileo. Galileo loved being outside and looking at the Earth and its many beauties.

Galileo first went to a nearby Florentine grammar school. Galileo stayed at that school for two years before going to another school. Galileo's father had a hard decision choosing Galileo's next school because the family was becoming low on money. Galileo was sent to a monastery (A building(s) occupied with Monks) school at a place near Florence called Vallombroso. The Monks at that school followed the Camaldolese order. There he learned Greek and Latin. He also learned about the Greek philosopher, scientist, and teacher, Aristotle. Galileo enjoyed being taught by the Monks so much that he wanted to become one, but his father did not like this idea and rejected Galileo's idea. He wanted Galileo to become a medical doctor. Galileo's father took Galileo back to Florence where he was taught once again by a tutor. He was placed in a university. Vincenzio told Galileo to study medicine. Galileo did that for a bit, but soon changed his course to mathematics and did geometry.

Squares to represent geometry.

This is how his track to science and math started. Galileo's first big discovery was with the pendulum experiment. He was in the University of Pisa in 1583 and he was listening to a sermon. He became bored with the sermon and started looking around the room, he noticed a cathedral lamp. it was usually staying still, but this time it was swinging back and forwards. Galileo started noticing a pattern about the way the lamp was moving, so he measured the time by the pulse on his wrist. Galileo had written down after studying the pendulum,"Whatever the length of the pendulum swing, the time taken to complete it is the same." - Galileo

Cathedral lamp, like what Galileo saw.

Galileo's next big discovery was the experiment in which he dropped two cannonballs of different weight, sizes, and material, off of the leaning tower of Pisa to show that the heavier ball would have more air resistance that the smaller one. (Historians are unsure of whether this experiment ever happened or if it was another scientist. Galileo never actually mentioned that he did it, but he did say what the result of the experiment was in his last book called the "Dialogue")

Cannon balls because Galileo dropped them

The next discover that Galileo made was a big one. He had heard of an invention called the spyglass, it was a telescope, but could only see around a quarter of a mile ahead. Galileo decided to make an advanced spyglass, he did make one using advanced tools, and it was able to see space. He looked up at the sky and saw planets and space. Galileo saw the Moon first, Aristotle had said that the moon had a smooth surface, but Galileo easily proved him wrong. The Moon had bumps and mountains, and was anything but smooth. The Doge also ordered him to come to show him the spyglass. (Telescope) He was pleased, it magnified objects nine times more than the Human eye and was clear. The Doge offered to buy Galileo's telescope and give him a permanent professorship at the University of Padua and dramatically increase his salary. Galileo accepted the offer.

A Telescope similar to Gaileo's

Something bad happened, Galileo realized that the Earth was not at the center of the Solar System, but the Sun was. This was bad because the Catholic Church's beliefs, which is what everyone in Rome believed in, was that the Earth was at the center of the Solar system. Galileo also saw that the Sun has darker and lighter spots on it, which was also against the Catholic Church because they believed that the heavens (Anything above Earth) was perfect. And if the Sun wasn't all one color, then it wasn't perfect. At this time, Rome was one of the most powerful places to have ever existed. In 1615, Galileo was taken to the Inquisitory (Present day court) There,Galileo was forced to drop his view of the Copernicus theory. (That the Sun is in the middle of the Solar System) If he didn't, he probably would've been killed.

The Solar System, how Galileo saw it

Galileo had heard about comets appearing in the night sky, Galileo was amazed, and began writing a book called The Assayer, one of his most amazing scientific books, but everything did not go so well. His friend had become the new Pope at the Catholic Church, and Galileo thought that his friend who had believed in Galileo's theory might help the whole Church, but he didn't. He told Galileo that anything was fine, so Galileo wrote a book, one of the best scientific books. (It helped science advance the most) This book was called The Assayer. He referred to Aristotle as Simpleton in this book. What is not known is why did Galileo's friend get mad at Galileo. But he did. And Galileo was not allowed to write any more books against the Catholic Church and/or its beliefs. Galileo was now very old. His joints weakened, his eyesight was slowly worsening until he became blind in one eye, then the next. He asked his assistant to help him write his last book. This book was not about anything related to space, it was about physics, the book was called The Dialogue. He wrote about things such as the Pendulum experiment. Galileo had later died in his sleep in January 8th 1664. Later in court, around 1980, the case against Galileo was reopened, and was claimed innocent

Galileo

Determined, Brilliant, Outstanding, Brave

Son of Vincenzio Galilei

He loved the stars, space, and science

He experienced pressure and encouragement

He feared death, the Catholic Church, and Rome

Who discovered space

He would like to see more planets being discovered

Born in Pisa and lived in Florence

Galileo

By Murtaza Ali

Credits:

Created with images by Biblioteca Rector Machado y Nuñez - ""Galileo"." • juicebox_hero - "Pipe_Organ" • Talie79 - "music lute strings" • tjmwatson - "Sound Waves: High Pitch" • andymag - "square" • Dirkje94 - "chandelier gold palace" • karmajaxx - "cannon balls" • Biblioteca Rector Machado y Nuñez - "105130" • Image Editor - "01 The Solar System PIA10231, mod02"

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