4.What are genetically modified organisms? How do they change farming? What are pros and cons of GMO's? A GMO (genetically modified organism) is the result of a laboratory process where genes from the DNA of one species are extracted and artificially forced into the genes of an unrelated plant or animal. One of the major selling points was that these new crop varieties would reduce the use of pesticides after all, if the crop plant itself was producing a toxin that killed major insect pests. Pros: resistance to insects,tolerance to herbicides,tolerance for heat, cold, or drought,crop yield. Cons: Allergies, Antibiotic resistance, Cancer.