Geography and cities
Three elements of Greek geography had an important impact on the Greek life. First, the mountains were important. The mountains were important because they separated Greece into small regions and prevented them for forming large poleis. So, each city-state had to function on its own and they grew fierce and independent. An issue from the mountains was it had rocky soil and made it difficult to grow crops. The city-states in the mountain had to be built on waterways or it would be hard to reaching the waterways and trade with other city-states. Also, the mountains made it difficult for trade to happen between the city -states. Another element of geography is that Greece is a peninsula. It is surrounded by water on three sides. The west is the Ionian Sea, the south is the Mediterranean Sea, and east is the Aegean Sea. The climate was mild and nice and in some places people could grow wheat, barley, olives, and grapes that they could use for trade. They also raised sheep and goats. The climate also made it easy for people to meet outside and talk to each other without being all cold or something. The city-states developed because of geography. For example, city-states in the mountains developed there because the people came together to form their own government and they had a way to trade by being on some type of water. This was important because it was their only way to access others and earn money and get goods they could not grow or make.
Each Greek city-state was ran by its own citizens. To be considered a citizen in the Greeks city states, you have to be a member of the political community who treats everyone equally and that has rights and responsibility too. However, in most Greek city-states only free Native-born men with land were considered citizens. In some city-states, women and children could be citizens but could not vote. If you were a citizen you could gather in the agora to choose their officials and pass laws. An advantage to being a citizen was the right to vote, hold office, own property, and defend themselves in court. In return, citizens had a duty to serve in government and to fight for their polis as citizen soldiers. This was a disadvantage because many soldiers lost their lives fighting during the Peloponnesian War. This was very different than ancient Mesopotamia or Egypt, where most people were subjects, with no rights, no say in voting, no choice in government, and no choice but to obey their rulers.During the Peloponnesian War, other city states fought with the Spartans and Athenians. The Spartans got help from Peloponnesian, which was a land power, and Corinth, which was a power on the sea. The war affected many city states other than just Sparta and Athens, which also lost citizens in the battles of the war.
The earliest Greek stories were called epics. These were considered art. The epics told about heroic deeds. Lots of the epics made were based on war or things that were happening at that time so, when people read them, they remember what happened at that time. Epics have to be true things like real things that happened in life, and drama can be made up. The first great epics poem was called Iliad and the Odyssey, the poet Homer wrote the epic in 700s B.C. These epics are still talked about today and told to teach a lesson through storytelling. A fable is a short tale that teaches a lesson. A fable often are funny stories that point out human flaws, as well as strengths. Often parents would read fables to teach there children a lesson or to just make sure they will never do anything bad. Greek poems and stories are the oldest in the Western world. They are still told and retold today for entertainment and used in school as a teaching guide on how to write poems with ideas and meaning. The Greeks were the first to have drama, they wrote lots of comedy and tragedy things on drama. Drama from the Greeks has influenced drama that we see daily today, like TV shows, movies, and plays.
Oligarchy- a small group of people having control of a country, organization, or institution. Tyranny- cruel and oppressive government or rule. They also rule by there self. Representative democracy- is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy. Direct democracy- a form of democracy in which people decide (e.g. vote on, form consensus on) policy initiatives directly. This differs from the majority of modern Western-style democracies, which are representative democracies. One advantage for having an oligarchy is that you don't need to argue as much because there is not that many people that get to chose. A disadvantage is they might argue and they might all agree on one bad choice, but if it was a big group it would be harder to all agree. An advantage of having a government style called a tyranny is that there is only one person, so no arguing. A disadvantage is, if that person makes a bad choice that no one else agrees on, to bad you do not get change it and you get to live with that bad choice. The direct democracy advantage could be that a ton of people vote for whatever they want. This makes so most people get a voice and not just a couple people. A disadvantage is that it will take a long time for a choice to be made. You will wait weeks or months to wait. Also with direct democracy you have to be in one place. The last type of democracy they had is representative democracy. An advantage is that you just have to send in a vote, instead of going to a certain area. A disadvantage is that it will also take a very long time to do.
The Greeks had a belief called a polytheistic belief. This is where they believe in more than one god. Polytheistic Greek religion encompassed a myriad of gods, each representing a certain facet of the human condition. The most important gods, though, were the Olympian gods led by Zeus. These were Athena, Apollo, Poseidon, Hermes, Hera, Aphrodite, Demeter, Ares, Artemis, Hades, Hephaistos, and Dionysos. The Greeks would not do certain things because of there thoughts. The Greeks thought after you die, you will live on in a nice and happy world.
Aftí eínai i ellinikí glóssa. To ónomá mou sta elliniká eínai Izzy. What i put in Greek is "This is the Greek language. My name in Greek is Izzy. The Greeks alphabet has some of the same letters that English alphabet has but, lots of them are different. Often times the Greek letter is more then one letter in the English alphabet so, the words look longer but really they are not.