Causes of WW1:
Nationalism : Slaved started to push for independence because of Serbia’s growing strength. Austria-Hungary’s control of its territories in the Balkans was being threatened.
Militarism : France created an alliance in 1892 with Russia that created worry through out Germany. Germany felt threatened that they would be surrounded by enemies. Germany then worked into an alliance with Italy and Austria-Hungary. Great Britain later joined France and Russia in different alliance. The basic goal of the alliances was to avoid war for a time being.
Assassination- In June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand was shot and killed by Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip
Austria-Hungary soon declared war on Serbia. Due to the alliances created Germany and Russia honored their alliances. Britain, France, and Russia became The Allied Powers. Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria became the Central Powers.
Cause of U.S. Entry:
U.S. claimed they would stay neutral so countries such as Great Britain, tried to bring the U.S. into the war by using propaganda. The propaganda used depicted the Germans as evil.
Belgium declared themselves neutral and once the Germans started committing cruel acts in Belgium Americas opinion of Germany became rather poor.
The US had helped to fund 3 billion dollars for the Allies
The U.S. started to fear that they wouldn't be repayed if the Allies lost the war
When the German U- Boats sunk the British passenger ship The Lusitania, 128 Americans died. This angered the the US even farther.
The British created a blockade and Germany started using submarines to keep goods from reaching Britain. Germany promised not to target passager ship but soon torpedoed the Sussex, a passanger ferry.
1917- Auther Zimmerman sent a telegram to Mexico to declare war on the U.S. He claimed Germany would then in return help Mexico gain the territories lost in Mexican American war. The telegram was intercepted by the Bristish and was given to America.
Profile of American Soliders:
Selective Service Act of May 18, 1917: men between the ages of 21 and 30 registered with local draft boards. This was later changed to men between the ages of 18 and 45.
They would undergo a series of medical examinations. They spent most of their days learning military rules, completing drills with their equipment, exercising, learning to fight, and preparing for inspections.
American doughboys were members of the United States Army or Marine Corps.
Battle of Passchendaele:
The Allies were trying to break through the German defences and the control Passchendaele Ridge. From there they hoped to control and then destroy the German Belgian channel ports and sub bases
Nine British divisions, led by Sir Hubert Gough’s 5th Army, advanced near the Belgian village of Passchendaele on July 31
Gough was replaced with Herbert Plumer at the head of the attack. The British were then able to establish control over the land of east Ypres
There were three final attacks on Passchendaele. These attacks lead to capture of the village on November 6, 1917
In this battle heavy rains resulted in many tanks, horses, and soldiers simply disappearing into the watery mud holes.
The government collected money through Liberty bonds during the war. Then after the war it collected money through Victory bonds.
The government increased taxes with a new tax program.
American industries were short of labor as they started to assist in the war. Workers across the country went on strikes. They demanded higher wages and more benefits.
President Wilson established the National War Labor Board (NWLB) in April 1918.
The labor shortage strengthened unions and brought changes in the workforce. One change that occurred was the number of women in the workforce. Many of the jobs women took were traditionally male jobs but with the lack of men to fill those spots women could step in.
Women’s war efforts helped produce one very important political change—the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment. President Wilson threw his support behind the amendment in recognition of women’s wartime contributions.
There was prejudice against German Americans, many of whom lost their jobs.
Quakers and Mennonites were considered traitors by many Americans and experienced violence and abuse.
Along with many other Americans the Socialist Party also proclaimed its opposition to the war. The socialists felt that the countries fighting were taking advantage of Americas Capitalist economy.
Outcomes of WW1:
When Russia left in 1917, the Central powers collapsed.
There was later the collaspe of Austria-Hungary and the loss of the Ottoman Empire once the Allied powers gained control.
Treaty of Versailles (1919) was written by the Allies. Germany was forced to take full responsibility for both starting the war and all the damage cause by the war. Later Germany had to pay about $33 billion in reparations.
The territories taken from Germany include Alsace- Lorraine, Eugene, Malmedy, Northern Schleswig, Hultschin, West Prussia, Posen, and Upper Silesia
The U.S. never signed the treaty because of at least 12 senators, who strongly opposed the treaty. Most were Republican 'enemies' of President Wilson.
Wilsons fourteen Points was a peace proposal, based on Wilson’s concept of peace without victory. Allies then had unselfish peace terms such as freedom of the seas, the restoration of territories conquered, and the right to national self-determination.
Wilson called for the establishment of a what later became the League of Nations.
8.5 million died, 21 million wounded