Chapter 7 Collab: Group 4 By: Jake Heller, Christian Weiss, Willaim Dean, Brendan Shanahan, Russell Macias, Connor Breen, Paul Orbon, James Moore, and Matt Farber

Jansenism

Believed that only God grants salvific grace. They also strongly believed in predestination, and that Christ didn't die for all. Only the predestined would receive communion, and the soul was considered a slave to original sin’s effects. They also argued that penance doesn't help the damned. The heresy was condemned by Pope Innocent X to try to stop the spread in France, and failed. King Louis XIV saw the heresy as problematic and stopped the need or pilgrimage to the Convent of Port Royal. Jansenism was a Calvinistic heresy because it applied Calvinist rigor to catholic teachings on grace. It also used the ideas of predestination to say Jesus didn't die for all and into a few get grace and will be saved.

Pictured: Cornelius Jansen

Febronianism

Argued that the pope was only an administrative branch of the church hierarchy and had no real power to legislate laws. Claimed that the real authority lies in the ecumenical council and not the pope. Febronius also called German prince to become independent of Rome. These beliefs were condemned by Pope Clement XIII. Pope Clement XIII told the princes to reject Febronius’ teachings and stay loyal to Rome, in the end, all but one bishop pledged fidelity and allegiance to Rome. Febronianism is a conciliarist and nationalistic heresy because it claimed that the ultimate power was in the ecumenical councils and not the pope. Febronius also says german bishops should abandon allegiance with the pope. It also takes things from Gallicanism which is the National church of France which makes it a nationalistic heresy.

Pictured: Johann Nikolaus von Hontheim

Quietism

Stressed total abandonment in God and doubted the need for personal effort. The Hersey led towards excessive comfort in this way, denying the need for asceticism and personal prayer. Quietists believed that all that was needed to receive God's grace was immersing yourself in Him and rest perpetually within Him. In 1687, It was Condemned not only by Pope Bl. Innocent XI for religious reasons, but also by King Louis XIV for political reasons. Quietism is a Calvinistic heresy because it denies free will. It says that you should have passivity in prayer as well which is similar to the idea of denying the sacraments and not being able to choose what you do or think. In quietism you must accept what you think in prayer and in Calvinism you must accept what god planned through predestination.

Pictured: Miguel Molinas

Josephinism

Joseph II of Austria adopted the ideas of Febronius, who argued that the pope was merely an administrative head of the church and wasn't able to legislate laws. He dominated the church in almost every area and insisted that all papal documents were to be approved by his office. He also forbade the bishops of Austria to communicate directly with Rome and forced them to take an oath of allegiance. When almost all of his reforms had deteriorated, he was forced to turn to the pope for help. Josephinism is a nationalistic conciliarist heresy because Joseph II, king of Austria, founded this heresy to further the reforms of Austria. It is a conciliarist heresy because he took ideas from Febronius, who created Febronianism, which is a conciliarist heresy.

Pictured: Joseph II

Deism

Q: How is Deism different from supernatural Religion?

A: Deism is different from supernatural religion because it believes that god created the universe and then left it to run by itself, and let science happen. They believe that God does not intervene in the world which is different from supernatural religion. Supernatural religion believes that things that cannot be explained such as miracles or other things are the acts of god who does intervene in the world, where as deism believes this is just science and god let's the world run on its own. Deism also doesn't believe in revelations which are a major part of the catholic religion as well as others. Deism believes prayer, graces and blessings aren't necessary and are in fact crazy and god doesn't even demand faith. To supernatural religion, these are major components in our worship of god and in practicing our religion. Lastly, deists believe only reason is necessary for a life of decency, generosity and honest, whereas supernatural religion believes that prayer, faith, and trust in god are necessary for this.

Q: How does it describe the Universe?

A: Deism describes the universe as created by god with laws and principles and then is left to govern itself. Basically, the laws of science and the principles god left the earth with, run without god's intervention and only we have control over what goes on on earth.

Q: What is its basis of knowledge and understanding?

A: The basis of knowledge and understanding for deism was a very rationalistic position. The philosophy was based on how a person can only believe what you can base on human reason. It denied divine revelation and all supernatural a religion.

Q: How is it related to Freemasonry?

A: Deism is related to freemasonry because deism basically was trying to disprove most of the catholic teachings as well as other religions such as Judaism and Islam by saying god doesn't intervene therefore revelations can't occur. This is saying Jesus never came and, Prophets and Mary were never given revelations, for Judaism it says much of the Old Testament is false and for Islam it was saying Muhammad never got revelations. This is related to freemasonry because freemasonry was heavily influenced by deism and shared common ideas. Freemasonry tried to say organized religion isn't real and tried to persecute it. They also heavily persecuted Christianity because of the amount of divine intervention it talked of. Deism is the philosophy that influenced freemasonry by making it persecute other religions.

Q: What is Freemasonry?

A: They are a secret fraternal organization that spreads rationalistic ideas and are hostile towards organized religion, mainly Catholicism. They also try to anger the Catholics by performing cremations so that resurrection is not possible. Member included Voltaire, George Washington, Ben Franklin etc.

Q: How is it related to Agnosticism, Atheism, and Secular Humanism?

A: Deism is related to agnosticism, atheism, and secular humanism because they all plagued the church during the age of enlightenment, all believe reason is more important than religion, and all say religion and worship aren't important in different ways. Deism is a philosophy that believes god doesn't intervene in the world and only created the universe with certain principles that it governs itself with. It also believes praise, faith prayer etc. aren't necessary which is basically saying that religion isn't necessary because god doesn't really care about us and just let's the world run. Agnosticists don't believe in a god because there is no proof but if they are presented with proof then they can possibly believe in one. Atheists believe that there is simply no god and humans and the universe were not made by a god. Secular humanists don't believe religion should have a place or any control in society or in the government. They believe the world should be run by the characteristics of reason, philosophy, and ethics. They are all clearly connected by the fact that religion is not very important to them and they all believe in the enlightenment principle of reason guiding them instead of god, and deism is the philosophy that is a major part of all these religions’ beliefs. They almost get worse as you go down the line as you go from belief in a god but he doesn't care or intervene, to there isn't a god unless I have proof, to there is no god, to religion doesn't matter at all and we don't care if there's a god because our government and society is run by enlightened principles. Secular humanism also came around because of deism which made people think that since god doesn't intervene then we don't need religion in government or society. In conclusion, deism is the guiding philosophy of all these religions.

Q: How do you predict this will be a challenge to the Church in the future?

A: I predict this will be a challenge to the church in the future because there will be the question of whether science is correct and scripture is wrong in some aspects of the world which would make people question whether or not god really does intervene in the world. Deism could possibly make people completely abandon Catholicism because if you don't believe god intervene in the world, then you don't believe a large majority of the Old Testament and you also don't believe in many important things such as the annunciation to Mary, Jesus coming to die for our sins, Jesus resurrecting and the Holy Spirit going upon the apostles etc. It challenges the church teachings in so many ways that it would probably cause revolts, councils, and the need to persecute the people who believe in this because of how dangerous it truly is to the church.

Jansenism - Matt Farber, Febronianism - Will Dean, Quietism - Connor Breen/Paul Orbon, Josephanism - James Moore/Christian Weiss, Deism - Paul Orbon/James Moore, Pictures - Russell Macias/Brendan Shanahan, Spark Glideshow Created and Produced by Jake Heller

Credits:

Created with images by Stifts- och landsbiblioteket i Skara - "Iohann Nikolaus von Hontheim"

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