Chapter 7 Collab: Group 4 By: Jake Heller, Christian Weiss, Willaim Dean, Brendan Shanahan, Russell Macias, Connor Breen, Paul Orbon, James Moore, and Matt Farber
Believed that only God grants salvific grace. They also strongly believed in predestination, and that Christ didn't die for all. Only the predestined would receive communion, and the soul was considered a slave to original sin’s effects. They also argued that penance doesn't help the damned. The heresy was condemned by Pope Innocent X to try to stop the spread in France, and failed. King Louis XIV saw the heresy as problematic and stopped the need or pilgrimage to the Convent of Port Royal. Jansenism was a Calvinistic heresy because it applied Calvinist rigor to catholic teachings on grace. It also used the ideas of predestination to say Jesus didn't die for all and into a few get grace and will be saved.
Pictured: Cornelius Jansen
Argued that the pope was only an administrative branch of the church hierarchy and had no real power to legislate laws. Claimed that the real authority lies in the ecumenical council and not the pope. Febronius also called German prince to become independent of Rome. These beliefs were condemned by Pope Clement XIII. Pope Clement XIII told the princes to reject Febronius’ teachings and stay loyal to Rome, in the end, all but one bishop pledged fidelity and allegiance to Rome. Febronianism is a conciliarist and nationalistic heresy because it claimed that the ultimate power was in the ecumenical councils and not the pope. Febronius also says german bishops should abandon allegiance with the pope. It also takes things from Gallicanism which is the National church of France which makes it a nationalistic heresy.
Pictured: Johann Nikolaus von Hontheim
Stressed total abandonment in God and doubted the need for personal effort. The Hersey led towards excessive comfort in this way, denying the need for asceticism and personal prayer. Quietists believed that all that was needed to receive God's grace was immersing yourself in Him and rest perpetually within Him. In 1687, It was Condemned not only by Pope Bl. Innocent XI for religious reasons, but also by King Louis XIV for political reasons. Quietism is a Calvinistic heresy because it denies free will. It says that you should have passivity in prayer as well which is similar to the idea of denying the sacraments and not being able to choose what you do or think. In quietism you must accept what you think in prayer and in Calvinism you must accept what god planned through predestination.
Pictured: Miguel Molinas
Joseph II of Austria adopted the ideas of Febronius, who argued that the pope was merely an administrative head of the church and wasn't able to legislate laws. He dominated the church in almost every area and insisted that all papal documents were to be approved by his office. He also forbade the bishops of Austria to communicate directly with Rome and forced them to take an oath of allegiance. When almost all of his reforms had deteriorated, he was forced to turn to the pope for help. Josephinism is a nationalistic conciliarist heresy because Joseph II, king of Austria, founded this heresy to further the reforms of Austria. It is a conciliarist heresy because he took ideas from Febronius, who created Febronianism, which is a conciliarist heresy.
Pictured: Joseph II