Endocrine System Glands and Hormones

The job of the endocrine system is to produce and secrete hormones that regulate the activity of cells and organs.

Endocrine and Nervous Relation

The endocrine system has an interconnected relationship with the nervous system. The endocrine needs a stimulus in order to produce hormones. The needed stimulus comes in the form of certain chemical and electrical signals from the nervous system.


Hormones are chemical signals produced by glands in the endocrine system. They are sent through the bloodstream to regulate the physiological and behavioral aspects of an organ.


Glands are organs of the endocrine system that produce hormones in the body.

Endocrine vs Exocrine

Glands that secrete hormones can be divided into two categories: endocrine and exocrine glands. Endocrine glands release their hormones directly into the blood stream, while exocrine glands have ducts that release hormones outside of the body.

Glands of the Endocrine System

The hypothalamus is a gland in the brain that is in control of pituitary hormones.

Pineal Gland

The Pineal gland is a gland in the brain that affects sleeping and waking patterns as well as producing the hormone melatonin.

Pituitary Gland

The Pituitary gland is located in the brain. It stimulates other endocrine glands by producing the TSH hormone.


The Thyroid gland is located in the neck and produces the hormones T3 and T4, which control how quickly the body uses energy.


The Thymus gland is located in the chest. It produces T cells which help tell the immune system is supposed to do.


The Pancreas is an organ that helps maintain blood sugar levels by producing insulin. It is located behind the stomach.

Adrenal Glands

The Adrenal glands are located right above the kidneys. They control blood sugar as well as producing the hormone adrenaline.


The ovaries are the reproductive organs in females that produce the hormone estrogen. They are located in the pelvic region.


The testes are male reproductive organs that produce the hormone testosterone. They are located in the scrotum, between the legs.

Diabetes I

Diabetes I is a condition to where the pancreas does not produce enough insulin.

Diabetes II

Diabetes II is a condition that occurs when the body cannot regulate blood sugar. This is often caused by unhealthy eating in adults.


Goiters is the enlargement of the thyroid gland due to incorrect amounts of hormones being produced.


Gigantism is the abnormal growth in children due to the pituitary gland producing too much of a hormone.

Transgenic Bacteria

In order to make Transgenic Bacteria that is capable of producing insulin for Diabetic patients, first the gene for insulin would need to be isolated and then put into a bacterial plasmid. The plasmid would then be put into the cell which would multiply. The replicated cells would produce insulin.

Negative Feedback Mechanism

A negative feedback mechanism is when a function of an output is put back into the system to reduce the fluctuations in the output.

Created By
James Stewart


Created with images by crackdog - "Internal Organs of the Human Body from The Household Physician, 1905" • Dreaming in the deep south - "nervous system" • MattysFlicks - "Self portrait – Got juice?" • D. Welsh - "Hex" • hatcher10027 - "Tacking on the Styx - http://bookstore.authorhouse.com" • hatcher10027 - "Tacking on the Styx - http://bookstore.authorhouse.com" • hatcher10027 - "Tacking on the Styx - http://bookstore.authorhouse.com" • euthman - "Papillary Carcinoma of the Thyroid, FNA, Pap stain" • zilupe - "Ieskaties manā iekšējā pasaulē" • adrigu - "the pancreas" • Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library, UofT - "Dissection of the thorax and abdomen" • Jill A. Brown - "Diabetes" • TesaPhotography - "diabetes finger glucose" • euthman - "Diffuse Thyroid Hyperplasia" • ARHiggins - "Alternate Current Anatomy" • skeeze - "hela cells bacteria germs" • Arne Hendriks - "Negative Feedback"

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