Establishing a Safety Culture
The 5 Traits of Effective Safety Reporting
Characteristics of Effective Safety Reporting
In order to have a successful incident reporting system these characteristics must be followed:
- Trust- persons reporting incidents must be able to trust the recipient organization and be confident that any information they provide will not be used against them.
- Confidentiality- non punitive systems are based on confidential reporting. This means that the person reporting an incident must be sure that his/her identity and other information that may be used to identify those involved will not be disclosed.
- Ease of Reporting- the task of submitting incident reports should be as easy as possible for the reporter.
- Acknowledgement- the reporting of incidents requires considerable time and effort by the user and should be appropriately acknowledged.
- Motivating and Promotion- the information received from an incident reporting system should be made available to the aviation community as soon as possible, as this may help to motivate people to report further incidents.
Mandatory Incident Reporting Systems
In mandatory reporting systems, people are required to report certain types of incidents, which necessitates detailed regulations outlining who shall report and what shall be reported. Mandatory systems deal mainly with specific and concrete matters, they tend to collect more information on technical failures than on the human factor aspects.
Voluntary Incident Reporting Systems
In a voluntary reporting systems, pilots, controllers, and others involved in aviation are invited (rather than required) to report hazards, discrepancies, or deficiencies in which they were involved or which they observed.
Aviation Recording and Reporting Systems
The U.S. federal government collects vasts amounts of aviation data to support its responsibility for overseeing aviation safety. The four major organizations that collect and analyze aviation safety related data are the FAA, NTSB, The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) of the Research and Innovative Technology Administration and NASA.
Aviation Industry Safety Reporting Programs
- Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP)
- Flight Operational Quality Assurance (FOQA)
- Advanced Qualification Program (AQP)
- Line Operations Safety Audit (LOSA)
Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP)
The goal of the Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP) is to enhance aviation safety through the prevention of accidents and incidents. Its focus is to encourage voluntary reporting of safety issues and events that come to the attention of employees of certain certificate holders.
To encourage an employee to voluntarily report safety issues even though they may involve an alleged violation of Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR), enforcement-related incentives have been designed into the program. An ASAP is based on a safety partnership that will include the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the certificate holder, and may include any third party such as the employee's labor organization.
Flight Operational Quality Assurance (FOQA)
FOQA is a voluntary safety program that is designed to make commercial aviation safer by allowing commercial airlines and pilots to share de-identified aggregate information with the FAA so that the FAA can monitor national trends in aircraft operations and target its resources to address operational risk issues (e.g., flight operations, air traffic control (ATC), airports). The fundamental objective of this new FAA/pilot/carrier partnership is to allow all three parties to identify and reduce or eliminate safety risks, as well as minimize deviations from the regulations. To achieve this objective and obtain valuable safety information, the airlines, pilots, and the FAA are voluntarily agreeing to participate in this program so that all three organizations can achieve a mutual goal of making air travel safer.
Advanced Qualification Program (AQP)
The Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) is a voluntary alternative to the traditional regulatory requirements under CFR 14, Parts 121 and 135 for pilot training and checking. Under the AQP the FAA is authorized to approve significant departures from traditional requirements, subject to justification of an equivalent or better level of safety. The program entails a systematic front-end analysis of training requirements from which explicit proficiency objectives for all facets of pilot training are derived.
It seeks to integrate the training and evaluation of cognitive skills at each stage of a curriculum. For pass/fail purposes, pilots must demonstrate proficiency in scenarios that test both technical and crew resource management skills together. Air carriers participating in the AQP must design and implement data collection strategies which are diagnostic of cognitive and technical skills. In addition, they must implement procedures for refining curricula content based on quality control data.
Line Operations Safety Audit (LOSA)
LOSA is a voluntary formal process that uses highly trained observers to collect safety- related date on regularly scheduled airline flights. The observer is often a trusted airline captain or first officer who rides in the jump seat in the cockpit to obtain data about flight crew member behavior and crew strategy for managing threats and errors under conditions of operational complexity.
NASA Reporting System
The ASRS is an important facet of the continuing effort by government, industry, and individuals to maintain and improve aviation safety. The ASRS collects voluntarily submitted aviation safety incident/situation reports from pilots, controllers, and others. ASRS data is used for the:
- Identify deficiencies and discrepancies in the National Aviation System (NAS) so that these can be remedied by appropriate authorities.
- Support policy formulation and planning for, and improvements to, the NAS.
- Strengthen the foundation of aviation human factors safety research. This is particularly important since it is generally conceded that over two-thirds of all aviation accidents and incidents have their roots in human performance errors.
Automatic Recording Systems
Many modern air transport aircraft have automatic recording devices installed. The Flight Data Recorder (FDR), which monitors selected parameters of the flight, and the Cockpit Voice Recorder (CVR), which records voices and cockpit sounds, are installed to assist with the investigation of accidents and, in some cases, incidents. This data specifically from the FDR is use by the FOQA program to detect impending failures, user safety hazards and verify adequacy of component life and overhaul schedules.