La historia de España Luke Riley 8 Diamantes

SPAIN- The Ancient Pit Stop! Spain is high in iron and timber, Place to stop and get food and fix boats, Trading posts, Hub for sailors and traders

Pre-Roman Iberia, First to come in were the celts, Came in for silver, land, and resources, First civilization in spain was the celtiberos.

Celtiberos

Celtiberos, Iberian Peninsula name comes from these people, Galicia still has influences of Celtic culture (bagpipes, language) 492 Roman empire collapsed, Segovia and merida still have roman stuff, visigoths

Moors are the last invader(they hail from africa), Arabs, Berbers, Syrians from North Africa invaded the peninsula in 711 A.D. , Easily defeat visigoth kingdoms, conquering nearly all of peninsula

La reconquista

Almost continual fighting between Christian kingdoms in north of peninsula and Muslims, who controlled the South, Muslim Spain called “Al- Andalus” in Arabic, santiago-matamoros=KILL THE MUSLIMS, Closet religions-In the public eye you are one religion but at home you practice your own religion.

1492, Moors divided into many small kingdoms, Last moorish king, in Granada, defeated in January of 1492, Spain is now Catholic

Reyes Catolicos(catholic kings), Fernando of Aragon, Isabel of Castilla, Married in 1469, Unite christian kingdoms against moors, Solidified their power through religion, military success, Ended Reconquista by defeating Moors in Granada in 1492.

1492- last moorish king defeated; all muslims remaining in Spain forced to leave or convert to Christianity, 1502; Given The success against the Muslims, it is now decided that all jews need to leave Spain or convert. But how do we know they’ve converted? We interrogate and torture them until they confess-- or put them on trial and later execute (or burn) them!

A gold digger in spain is someone who marries another person for power. Juana, daughter of Fernando and Isabel. Marries Felipe (el Hermoso) of the powerful Habsburg family. Juana known as “ la Loca “

Carlos I, Son of juana and Felipe, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V of Austria, Spanish Empire grew rapidly-conquistas of incas and aztecs, Gold, silver flooded into spain from Americas along with new crops: corn, potatoes, fruits

Carlos V used the funds that were pouring in from the colonies to subsidize the many religious, war he was fighting across Europe. He passed on this legacy to his successor, his son Felipe

Continued wars against Protestants, Under Carlos V became one of the staunchest defenders of Catholicism, as it fought to stop the spread of the Protest Reformation across.

In 1554, married Mary Tudor of England in an attempt to create an international Catholic alliance. A male heir from this marriage would have become King of England however there was no son and the protestant Elizabeth I came to power in England. Annexed Portugal, Dutch declare independence from Spain: starts war involving England. 1588: Spain’s invincible armada defeated by England. Black Legend- propaganda against Spain.

EL GRECO = THE GREEK

Painter from Greece, his real name is Domenikos Theotokopoulos. Traveled to Spain in search of work in the decoration of El Escorial

Felipe II hated his style and refused to hire him.

War of Spanish Succession pitted royal families and their nations against each other to see who would rule Spain. War ends in 1713 w/ Spain losing gibraltar to England. Felipe V, the Bourbon grandson of Louis XIV, becomes King of Spain. The Bourbon family remains the royal family of Spain today

Rebellion of 2 May 1808 in Madrid begins War of Spanish Independence. Joseph Bonaparte “removed” (killed) from throne of Spain in 1812. During the upheaval, most of the colonies in America gain independence. Constitution of 1812 establishes a parliamentary monarchy.

Fernando VII (1814-1833)

Son of Carlos IV, returns from exile in France to rule after defeat of Napoleon’s army. Totalitarian rule, constantly at odds with liberals who wanted to expand on Constitution of 1812.

More Bourbon Troubles

Died in 1833 leaving only a daughter, Isabel,

She doesn’t get married, Country is divided on issue of woman ruler

Supporters of Fernando's brother, Carlos face off against more liberal supporters of Isabel in several “guerras Carlistas”

Isabel II reigns from 1833-1868

Isabel II rules through political turmoil with the Carlistas continually opposing her authority

Alfonso XIII

Unable to put a stop to the political tension and low morale of the country, Alfonso XIII allows a military general to establish a dictatorship from 1923-1931.

The dictatorship is unable to solve the problems of the country

In 1931, elections are held to determine if Spain should continue a monarchy or give democracy another try

Civil war !!!

General Francisco Franco stages a military revolt in 1936, beginning the Civil War

Franco’s fascist troops are aided by forces from Germany and Italy

Republican forces get very little help

War ends in 1939 with Franco’s National forces winning. Instead of contributing Franco’s policies or establishing an absolute monarchy, Juan Carlos declares democracy in Spain. He names Adolfo Suarez as first Prime Minister. Suarez begins the period known as the Transition

On March 11, 2004, Islamic fundamentalist terrorists place bombs on several commuter trains in Madrid killing 200 and injuring over 2000.

2 days after the attack, elections proclaim Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero the new Prime Minister of Spain

His first action, as promised, was to withdraw Spanish troops from the US war with Iraq

He won re-election in 2008

As a parliamentary monarchy, spain retains royal family although all gov decisions are handled by parliament and the President of the Government

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