Almost continual fighting between Christian kingdoms in north of peninsula and Muslims, who controlled the South, Muslim Spain called “Al- Andalus” in Arabic, santiago-matamoros=KILL THE MUSLIMS, Closet religions-In the public eye you are one religion but at home you practice your own religion.
1492- last moorish king defeated; all muslims remaining in Spain forced to leave or convert to Christianity, 1502; Given The success against the Muslims, it is now decided that all jews need to leave Spain or convert. But how do we know they’ve converted? We interrogate and torture them until they confess-- or put them on trial and later execute (or burn) them!
In 1554, married Mary Tudor of England in an attempt to create an international Catholic alliance. A male heir from this marriage would have become King of England however there was no son and the protestant Elizabeth I came to power in England. Annexed Portugal, Dutch declare independence from Spain: starts war involving England. 1588: Spain’s invincible armada defeated by England. Black Legend- propaganda against Spain.
More Bourbon Troubles
Died in 1833 leaving only a daughter, Isabel,
She doesn’t get married, Country is divided on issue of woman ruler
Supporters of Fernando's brother, Carlos face off against more liberal supporters of Isabel in several “guerras Carlistas”
Isabel II reigns from 1833-1868
Isabel II rules through political turmoil with the Carlistas continually opposing her authority
Unable to put a stop to the political tension and low morale of the country, Alfonso XIII allows a military general to establish a dictatorship from 1923-1931.
The dictatorship is unable to solve the problems of the country
In 1931, elections are held to determine if Spain should continue a monarchy or give democracy another try
Civil war !!!
General Francisco Franco stages a military revolt in 1936, beginning the Civil War
Franco’s fascist troops are aided by forces from Germany and Italy
Republican forces get very little help
War ends in 1939 with Franco’s National forces winning. Instead of contributing Franco’s policies or establishing an absolute monarchy, Juan Carlos declares democracy in Spain. He names Adolfo Suarez as first Prime Minister. Suarez begins the period known as the Transition
On March 11, 2004, Islamic fundamentalist terrorists place bombs on several commuter trains in Madrid killing 200 and injuring over 2000.
2 days after the attack, elections proclaim Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero the new Prime Minister of Spain
His first action, as promised, was to withdraw Spanish troops from the US war with Iraq
He won re-election in 2008
As a parliamentary monarchy, spain retains royal family although all gov decisions are handled by parliament and the President of the Government