- Beginning: a tiny village along the Tiber and Po river
- Have 7 large hills that act as a natural defensive barrier
- Expanded to take over all of Italy, Tunis, most of Europe, Africa, Spain, and the Middle East.
In 264 BC, Ancient Rome was considered the “Masters of the Mediterranean”
- Tiber and Po rivers were very ideal to travel for trade and communication
- In Italy, the 2 large mountains called the Alps and Apennines helped to protect Rome from Invasion
- East of that mountain range is the Adriatic Sea which was used as a food source, and means of transportation and recreation.
- The volcanic ash mixed into the soil made the land the most fertile in Europe, allowing a surplus of goods resulting in agricultural intensification.
- This allowed a rapid Increase in population which greatly aided the country's military force
- In the end, Ancient Rome was 3 times the size of Ancient Greece.
Rather than an institution where a specific group exercised power like the Greeks, the Roman Republic had several institutions that had both few and many people involved in political rule.
- After the Etruscan Monarchy, the Romans decided they wanted a new system where the citizens ran the government
- Created the Roman Republic and the Senatus Populusque Romanus (The People of Rome). Where citizens elected representatives to rule on their behalf.
- Magistrates (Consul) : Given the power to veto each other on important decisions
- Assemblies: 4 Assemblies (Praetors, Censors, Curulian Aediles, and Quaestors) elected officials that pass and enforce laws
- Senate: Council that controlled foreign affairs, state budget, and essentially all the land.
- Plebian Tribal Council & Tribunes:
- For the first time in History, the Plebeians had the right to stand for election, the Plebeian Tribal & Tribunes.
- Eventually gaining the position of consul (highest position of government with only two individuals).
- The Senate strictly represents the aristocrat class
- Two men in the Republican Government were given the job of creating the censor (census), for the first time.
- The censor was established in the mid 4th century BCE.
- During times of crisis a dictator had all the power, made decisions without any approval, and had full control over military for a certain period of time
The Twelve tables where the 10 leaders carved some of the most important Roman laws into the 12 tablets.
- This guaranteed every citizen had equal treatment under the law
- This also shows the importance of writing and centralized government, and how they were utilized in society.
Increased standard of living
These creations would have taken a deep knowledge of math, science, architecture, and more in order to create such things
Pont Du Gard in France carried water all over the Roman empire. It is still standing today
- Created the aqueduct system which was a water way constructed to transport water around the Roman Empire.
- This allows the citizens to have safe clean water for drinking, baths, latrines and other uses.
- This is the first time such a large water system was created
- Generally it only travels to the first floor of homes, rather than 2nd or 3rd floors.
- Used covered drains for storm water
- Two of the most common forms of entertainment, baths and sham naval battles, involved large quantities of water which was created because of the easily accessible water.
Wastewater Sewage System
- Drinking or closely using wastewater is detrimental to human health, which is why this system is ultimately essiential
- The first sewers were created in approx. between 800 and 735 BC
- Water from palaces, baths, fountains, latrines, and other urban runoff entered Rome's drainage and wastewater collection system.
- Public and private toilets were situated throughout the Empire
- The sewers dumped raw sewage into the far lands or rivers, and still did sometimes spread germs
- While, the system was in place, the empire was still cluttered with garbage, animal skins or guts, and more
- Buildings were heated by a hypocaust, which is a system of burning wood and coal underneath the ground to heat the water from the aqueduct
- Main establishment of socialization
- Cement and creations of cement like roads were first created by Ancient Rome. Today known as hydraulic cement-based concrete
- For the first time they combined cement into structures and the concrete allowed for stronger and larger structures such as the Pantheon.
- Was known for having created roads all throughout Rome
- Without this creation it would be near impossible to imagine our modern life
Thermae (Heated Baths)
- In a time like this it’s a phenomenal feat to create these complex bath system
- Intricate establishments need to be created for steaming, relaxing, or ice cold baths.
- This is for both the rich and the poor, men and women to enjoy.
Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus
- Worked in a small farm when crisis arose in Rome
- When crisis arose, he humbly rose to the challenge and defeated the enemy in a day
- He was said to have maintained power untill he brought Rome through the emergency
- Known for his selfless devotion to Rome since he gave up power when the crisis was over
- First dictator which ended the Roman Republic and created the Empire of Rome
- Greatly expanded Rome geographically and established it's imperial system
- Served as a dictator for a year before his assassination
- Relieved debt
- Reformed the Senate by increasing its size which resulted in a better representation of Romans
- Reformed the Roman calendar
- Reorganized local government
- Resurrected two city-states which were Carthage and Corinth.
- Other than household duties, women had a certain amount of freedom and independace outside the home
- Had access to education from a young age if part of the elite class
- Allowed to do things like shopping, manage their business, go to public events, and more.
- Some had careers as hairdressers, midwives, or even doctors even though it was not common.
- While they had influence they do not have any political power.
Children of the elite had access to education
- From ages 7-11, both males and females began to learn to read and write in Latin and maybe Greek
- From ages 12-15, children are given liberal education in language and literature
- Girls are taught in the privacy of home
- Boys can be taught in public
- Age 16, boys study rhetoric at public lectures
- Girls were taught singing, dancing, spinning and weaving.
Military and War
264-241 BCE: 1st Punic Battle and was known as a water battle
- Was fought to establish control over Sicily and Corsica since Carthage thought it was their land
- Rome sent their armies and won the battle because of their strong naval army
218-201 BCE: 2nd Punic War
- The leadership of Hannibal for Carthage
- Invaded Rome with his cavalry and surrounded a Roman army twice the size of his own and was able to inflict 50, 000 causalities.
- Hannibal led his army through Gaul and Spain and across the Alps where many died, and arrived and Po River.
- Arrived with 20,000 infantry and 6,000 cavalry.
- Had control over northern Italy
- Romans were defeated
149-146 BCE: Third Punic War
- Scipio made a blockade and mainly attacked on the harbor side
- Of a city population that may have exceeded a a quarter of a million, only 50, 000 remained in the end
- Rome named the city-state Africa
- Rome burned Carthage to the ground
- Carthage was defeated and Rome was safe