Vatican II

1. Who called the council? Provide background of the Pope who called the council. Who got elected during the Council? Provide background on this new Pope

The Second Vatican Council was called by Pope John XXIII. Pope John was an Italian pope who only served for a few years before his death. He was born into a poor family in a small Italian village, Sotto il Monte. He became a priest in 1904 and later was drafted into the Italian army where he served as a hospital orderly and chaplain. After the war he was named president of the Society for the Propagation of the Faith by Pope Benedict XV. In 1953 he was named a cardinal of Venice, and soon became a popular choice for the next pope. He was soon after named pope. After John had called the Second Vatican Council he died and Pope Paul VI was his successor who supported the council and allowed it to continue. Pope Paul VI was born in Italy in 1897. His father was a lawyer, editor, and member of the parliament. In his early 20's he began preparing for priesthood. After joining the Vatican secretariat and being a member for 32 years he was made head of the secretariat. In 1958 he was named a cardinal and in 1963 he became pope.

2. Why was Vatican II called?

Pope John XXIII called for the Council because he felt as if the church had to modernize and adapt to the modern day. Within the apostolic constitution Humanæ salutis, he formally called for the council and talked about the spiritual poverty throughout the church. The Pope thought that the church had to adapt to how the 20th was evolving. He called for an Aggiornamento, or,a freshening thinking of and practices that would allow the Church and Gods work to better serve the people of God on this earth. Pope John XXIII also wanted to create a new path to Christian unity at this Council.

3. How did the council change the structure, Mass procedures, or doctrines of the Church?

The Second Vatican council made several changes to the structure,mass procedure, and doctrines of the church, in order for the faith tobe better suited to the needs of modern people. Firstly, the Dogmatic Constitution of the Church was adopted. It stated that the church was a hierarchically structured community, and that its members are all treated with fundamental equality, regardless of which position they have within the Church. This also reinstates the bishops purpose to assist the pope with teaching and governing the Church. Next, the Dogmatic Constitution of Divine Revelation was created with the goal of adapting modern scholastic as a vehicle to help modern Catholics better understand the history of the faith, and its various literary forms. It also emphasizes the unity that comes with tradition and scripture, and how they are not separate forms of revelation. The Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World was made to assuage concerns of modern Catholics by officially addressing the concerns that average people possess, including atheism, politics andwar.

4. What major documents were issued by the Council or Popes?

Lumen Gentium uses terms like the Body of Christ, and People of God to define the church as one community. Dei Verbum- "the word of God." Divine inspiration and revelation can be used along with sacred scripture and tradition. Sacrosanctum concilium- mass is not a spectator event. You have to be involved. Opened up mass in vernacular languages, instead of just Latin. Gaudium et spes discussed the human spirit, and the reasons for human sadness. It also discussed contemporary atheism.

5. Questions 1-12 from the end of Chapter 9

1. He retained the nickname the Good Pope John because he used to crack jokes and visit prisoners and hospital patients.

2. He created a synod for Rome, drafted a new code of canon law and called an ecumenical council.

3. He believed that the church was in a grave state of spiritual poverty.

4. It lasted for about 3 years and it took place at St.Peters Basilica.

5) Lumen Gentium uses terms like the Body of Christ, and People of God to define the church as one community. It coalesces the church into one body.

6) Dei Verbum- "the word of God." Divine inspiration and revelation can be used along with sacred scripture and tradition. It opened up the church to new teachings.

7) Sacrosanctum concilium- Mass is not a spectator event. You have to be involved. Opened up mass in vernacular languages, instead of just Latin.

8) Gaudium et spes discussed the human spirit, and the reasons for human sadness. It also discussed contemporary atheism. It was a response to Pope Bl. John's desires for a more involved church.

9. Bl. Paul VI was the Pope when Vatican II came to an end.

10. They reversed the excommunication that they implemented upon each other.

11. He made sure to improve national relations, he issued new commissions, created new documents and structures. He also issued the New Order of the Mass.

12. It emphasized that the use of any form of artificial contraception is a sin.

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