Chapter 29

Central Nervous System

Contains the brain and the spinal cord in vertebrates, is the control center of the body. Controls conscious and subconscious actions, and controls higher functions.

Peripheral Nervous System

Includes everything outside the brain and spinal cord, including nerves and sensory receptors.

Somatic Nervous System

This is a sub part of the PNS, and it controls voluntary actions. It is in charge of skeletal muscle neurons.

Autonomic Nervous System

Controls involuntary and subconscious actions.


Subdivision that controls "flight or fight" responses, including reflexes, adrenaline, and immediate emotions.


Sub division that controls involuntary actions when the body is relaxed and at rest, including digestion.

Sensory Neuron

Also known as afferent neurons, these transmit messages from receptors to the CNS


These neurons form complex networks to help transmit messages from sensory neurons, the CNS, and motor neurons.

Motor Neurons

Also known as efferent neurons, these transmit signals from the CNS to body parts to create actions, such as the muscles and glands.

Neuromuscular Junction

This is the point of contact between muscle fibers and motor neurons. This allows the neuron to transmit a signal to the muscles creating an action.


This is an organic chemical found in the brain and body in most animals that helps signals be transmitted from neurons to other cells

Norepinephrine and epinephrine

These are chemicals released by the adrenal medulla during a fight or flight situation. These chemicals are adrenaline.


These are junctions between nerve cells and regular cells or nerve to nerve cells. There are two types, chemical and electrical.

White Matter

White matter is made up of the axons that connect grey matter areas of the brain. They carry the nerve impulses to the cell bodies.

Grey Matter

Grey matter is made up of the cell bodies of the neurons in the brain. They are connected by the white matter areas. It also has capillaries, synapses and other important components.

Cerebral Cortex

Frontal Lobe

Helps with personality, learning, voluntary movement, and emotions

Temporal Lobe

Auditory processing and speech

Occipital Lobe

Visual processing

Parietal Lobe

Controls sensory impulses

Limbic System

Controls things lie memories and emotions thought the hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, and amygdala

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