By 1450 the population of northern Europe, which had declined due to bubonic plague, was beginning to grow again
When the destructive Hundred Years’ War between France and England ended in 1453, many cities grew rapidly.
Urban mer- chants became wealthy enough to sponsor artists. This happened first in Flanders, which was rich from long-distance trade and the cloth industry.
As wealth increased in other parts of Northern Europe, patronage of artists increased as well.
Italy was divided into city-states.
In-contrast, England and France were unified under strong monarchs. These rulers often sponsored the arts by purchasing paintings and by supporting artists and writers. For example, Francis I of France invited Leonardo da Vinci to retire in France, and hired Italian artists and architects to rebuild and decorate his castle at Fontainebleau (The castle became a showcase for Renaissance art)
Palace of Fontainebleau
Albrecht Dürer was a painter, printmaker, and theorist of the German Renaissance
Dürer established his reputation and influence across Europe when he was still in his twenties, due to his high-quality woodcut prints.
Hans Holbein the Younger
Hans Holbein the Younger was a German and Swiss artist and printmaker who worked in a Northern Renaissance style.
He is best known as one of the greatest portraitists of the 16th century.
Jan van Eyck
Jan van Eyck was a Flemish/Netherlandish painter active in Bruges.
He is often considered one of the founders of Early Netherlandish painting school and one of the most significant representatives of Northern Renaissance art.
Pieter Bruegel the Elder
Bruegel was the most significant artist of Dutch and Flemish Renaissance painting, a painter and printmaker from Brabant
Known for his landscapes and peasant scenes he was a pioneer in making both types of subject the focus in large paintings.
Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus
Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus, known as Erasmus or Erasmus of Rotterdam, was a Dutch/Netherlandish Renaissance humanist, Catholic priest, social critic, teacher, and theologian
Erasmus was a classical scholar and wrote in a pure Latin style.
It is the chiefest point of happiness that a man is willing to be what he is.
Sir Thomas More, venerated by Roman Catholics as Saint Thomas More, was an English lawyer, social philosopher, author, statesman and noted Renaissance humanist.
Thomas More is known for his 1516 book Utopia and for his untimely death in 1535, after refusing to acknowledge King Henry VIII as head of the Church of England
See me safe up: for in my coming down, I can shift for myself.
Christine de Pizan
Christine de Pizan was an Italian French late medieval author.
She served as a court writer for several dukes and the French royal court during the reign of Charles VI.
Christine de Pizan was one of the most notable women writers of medieval times who is known for her pioneering works about women.