Age of Inquiry by amber Thurston

This Image depicts a statue of Leonardo da Vinci. Born in 1452 during the renaissance, da Vinci was a famous artist, inventor, and scientist. His paintings, such as Mona Lisa and The Last Supper, are some of the most famous in the world.
A big part of the Renaissance was Antiquity, or the study of ancient Greece and Rome. It influenced many artist and architects to build and create new things.
This sculpture, known as the Pietà, was created by the esteemed Michelangelo. He was very famous during the renaissance, and the Pietà is one of his greatest achievements. Michelangelo was born in Italy, and learned his amazing artistic abilities from apprenticing for another artist. The Pietà depicts Mary holding the dead body of Jesus, and it is known all over the world as one of the best sculptures there is.
Francesco Petrarch, a scholar and poet, was very famous during renaissance times. He was a supporter of Humanism, a very big idealism that stemmed from that time period. Humanism is one of the main effects that came from the renaissance, and encourages celebrating man and humans instead of only focusing on god. During the Renaissance, this created much conflict as it opposed the church.
The printing press, an amazing invention created by Johannes Gutenberg, was the turning point of technology during the renaissance. It helped spread new ideas faster than ever, and led to the rise of humanism and secular thinking and the decline of church's power.
The Reformation Began with Martin Luther in 1517, and his dislike of many things the catholic church did. He created a sheet of 95 theses, and nailed it to the door of a catholic church. The Theses listed off things that Luther dislike about the church, and things he wanted to change. His theses created much talk and curiosity, thus beginning the protestant reformation.

The Protestants utilized the printing press to spread their new ideas and practices throughout Europe. Without the press, many people would not have found out about the reformation at all because the church kept a tight reign on the information the people received.

John Calvin was another famous protestant who shared many similar ideas as Martin Luther. Calvin was a Frenchman who had attended the University of Paris to study theology and become a priest. But because his father was a lawyer, he switched to a different college, and studied law. However, when his father passed away, he went on to study theology again, and continue his works against the catholic church.
In result to the Protestant movement, two new churches sprang up. The Lutheran Church, and the Calvinist Church, both named after Martin Luther, and John Calvin. The churches followed the belief systems of the names they carried.
Elizabeth the First was a Protestant, and played a huge role in the movement and the spread of its beliefs. She managed to keep the religion stable in her country despite much conflict that arose from it. This brought religious unity to most of her country, and strengthened her and the movement ever further.
The Counter-reformation was created by the Catholic church in response to the Protestant Reformation, and began with the council of Trent in 1545. The immense council with 270 members lasted over a time of 18 years, and worked to come up with ways to stop the Protestants and restrengthen the Catholics. This picture depicts a painting of the council, and an idea of what these sacred meetings looked like.
The Catholic Church caused an uproar over the Protestant movement. They took extreme military advances toward the reformation, and even began inquisitions to kill people who went against catholic beliefs.
One of the main defenses by the Catholic church were the inquisitions, and killings of people who were apart of the protestant movement. These people were labeled heretics, and were often hanged, or tortured to death. The church made sure to make most of the violence public, so that it spread a message to the protestants. One of the main Inquisitions, the Spanish inquisition, managed to really impact the reformation and decrease the number of protestants by inducing fear into the people.

The Jesuits, or The Society of Jesus, also played a huge role in the Counter-reformation. They went around Europe, and preached Catholic faiths and beliefs. This greatly strengthened the church, and stabilized it against the Protestants.

In order to keep Catholics for converting to Protestantism, the church created an Index of Forbidden Books. The goal was to keep key information from people that could possibly make them want to convert. They wanted to end the spread of new ideas that the printing press had enabled the Protestant Movement to accomplish.
After the Renaissance, the Scientific Revolution began in full force. It was a time period of fierce technological, mathematical, and scientific advancements for the world. This picture shows a painting of Isaac Newton, one of the most esteemed and well-known scientist that lived near the end of the great time period. Newton is responsible for many advancements in science and physics that are still used to date such as his laws of physics.

One of the many advancements that took place during the Scientific Revolutions was astronomy and the idea that the earth was not at the center of the universe. For many, this idea was revolutionary as everyone had believed the earth was the center from the teachings of the church. This picture shows the sun, and all the planets around it, suggesting the new theory.

This picture shows Blaise Pascal, who was a very high ranking mathematician during the time of scientific revolution. He is known for setting the foundation of existentialism, and being able to balance both religion and science in his life.

Galileo, another leading figure of the scientific revolution, is best known for his work with mechanics, and experimental physics. He greatly encouraged the spread of scientific ideas, and even became a professor to teach his ideas.

One of the greatest impacts the scientific Revolution had on the world was the creation of the scientific method. The method enabled scientist to create, discover, and learn new thing in a pattern that seemed to work and help every time. By using the method, science was able to be used by future generations and become constantly changing and built up to be the closet to the truth that it could possibly be. Today, the scientific method is seen in everything that takes place in the science world.
This painting depicts an image of Louis XIV, a ruler who established himself as an Absolute Monarch during the rise of Absolutism. Absolutism began after the decline of Feudalism, when people needed strong rulers to stabilize everything. Thus, many monarchs took advantage and gained all power, creating many generations of absolutism to come across Europe.
This picture shows an example of the idea of Divine Rights. During the rise of absolutism, many kings believed that they had all the power due to a right given to them by god. Because of this, many feared to oppose the king because it would be like opposing god's will. This helped strengthen absolutism.
In Russia, Absolutism was also on a rise with leaders called czars. These leaders had total control of their people, therefore they were absolute. The is a picture of Peter the Great, one of the most esteemed Russian Czars to rule. He used his power to expand his territory and encourage westernization while also crushing religious dissent.

Sometimes, absolute Rulers overstepped their power and actually ended up causing harm to their country. This picture shows the Russian orthodox Church, because although Peter the Great helped his country in many ways, he also hurt it by forcing everyone to convert to his own religion and change their culture entirely.

The Rise of Absolutism was both good and bad for kingdoms that it occupied. It was good for countries falling apart that need strong centralized power, but it was bad for diverse countries with strong wills about how they wanted to be governed. This picture shows a divine ruler, with his queen and dog by his side. Often, that was all the king would allow to come inside his circle of power so that he could control absolutely everything.
This is a portrait of the famous Voltaire, a french Philosopher during the Enlightenment. He is considered to the leader of the movement, with his ideas pertaining to justice and religious intolerance. His ideas helped lead and shape the Enlightenment for years to come.
Two more famous people of the enlightenment were Isaac Newton, and John Locke. These two men were not only friends, but also geniuses who helped to shape the way everyone thought about science. The were key people in the process of the immense enlightenment that took place in Europe. This picture shows Newton, sitting calmly in a chair.

This picture shows a statute thinking, or contemplating something. This was another large part of the Enlightenment, as was Rationalism. Rationalism is the idea that people should base opinions on reason and evidence, not religious backing or beliefs. This idea was a giant part of many philosophers ways of thinking.

This is a picture of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, one of the famous philosophers during the enlightenment. During this time period, a big thing was challenging the status quo, and that's what many philosophers, playwrights, and novelists sought to do. Many wanted to change the way of thinking about the world with god in it, and many wanted to change the way of thinking politically and economically.

And finally, one of the last main ideas many hoped to follow during the Enlightenment was empiricism. Empiricism is learning news things from first hand knowledge, not relying on second-hand sources to tell you what is right or wrong. During the Enlightenment, this was such a big deal because for many to question their authority, like the church, they had to learn new things and learn those things with their own experiments. This picture shows beakers, to signify how science was a main focus of Empiricism.


"Martin Luther with Other Protestant Reformers." World History: The Modern Era, ABC-CLIO, 2017, Accessed 13 Feb. 2017.

Library of Congress. "Martin Luther Posting Ninety-Five Theses." World History: The Modern Era, ABC-CLIO, 2017, Accessed 13 Feb. 2017

"Elizabeth I." World History: The Modern Era, ABC-CLIO, 2017, Accessed 13 Feb. 2017.

"Council of Trent." World History: The Modern Era, ABC-CLIO, 2017, Accessed 13 Feb. 2017.

"Ignatius Loyola." World History: The Modern Era, ABC-CLIO, 2017, Accessed 13 Feb. 2017.

"Nicolaus Copernicus: World System." World History: The Modern Era, ABC-CLIO, 2017, Accessed 13 Feb. 2017.

"Blaise Pascal." World History: The Modern Era, ABC-CLIO, 2017, Accessed 13 Feb. 2017.

"Galileo." World History: The Modern Era, ABC-CLIO, 2017, Accessed 13 Feb. 2017.

"Louis XIV." World History: The Modern Era, ABC-CLIO, 2017, Accessed 13 Feb. 2017.

"Russian Orthodox Church Patriarch Conducts Service." World History: The Modern Era, ABC-CLIO, 2017, Accessed 13 Feb. 2017.

"Voltaire." World History: The Modern Era, ABC-CLIO, 2017, Accessed 13 Feb. 2017.

Created By
Amber Thurston


Created with images by Unsplash - "mona lisa painting art" • goranmx - "leonardo da vinci inventor intelligence" • kalleboo - "Athens Acropolis" • decar66 - "Cahors Cathedral" • Amy Loves Yah - "Beakers"

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