Egypt Global Health project : Ashley & Jessica Rice

According to the World Health Organization (WHO):

Total Population: 91,508,000 (2015)

Life Expectancy : Male- 69 years Female- 73 years

Health Care System: Ministry of Health (MOH) and Population provide free public healthcare to all Egyptian Citizens.

The free health care made available, is generally of very low quality, providing the minimal services.

Health financing per capita total expenditure on health (US exchange rate): 178

  • Total out of pocket expenditure- 55.7%
  • General Government expenditure - 5.6%

The total out of pocket expenditure of 55.7% proves that more than half of this country seek alternate health care treatments other than what the government is currently providing them with.

Private Healthcare is common for the the wealthier upperclass citizens. It is common to see people arrive for private medical procedures and pay in full cash at the time of the visit. A common inexpensive procedure sought after in Egypt is Lasik eye surgery.

Some of the private health centers include the International Medical Center and the Anglo American Hospital, both located in Cairo. Private health care insurers include the Health Insurance Organization and the Curative Care Organization.

Communication barriers with the staff is highly unlikely, you will find that most of the nurses and doctors speak excellent English. Distance of primary care providers also should not prove to be an issue in Egypt, it is reported that 95% of citizens live within 5 kilometers of a primary care physician.

Non communicable Disease

  • Responsible for 84.7% of deaths
  • Cardiovascular disease accounts for 46.2% of deaths
  • Cardiovascular disease accounts for 31% of deaths in the United States, while non communicable disease accounts for approximately 88% of deaths in the United States.
Country statistics and global health estimates by WHO and UNpartners

The biggest health harming problem is the high incidence of cardiovascular disease.

Solving the problem:

WHO is providing technical assistance to Egypt in controlling their non communicable diseases. Helping them to integrate health screening and to educate their patients about disease prevention. Egypt has raised its tobacco taxes, reduced salt, and replacing trans fat in the Egyptian diet in hopes of improving their countries health.

  1. Increase physical activity
  2. Eat a healthier diet
  3. Assess your risks for heart disease


Tobacco control continues to be a major challenge within Egypt. It is reported by WHO that approximately 47.5% of men 15 years and older in Egypt use tobacco.

Tobacco is a huge contributor to the chronic illnesses. This includes heart disease, stroke, lung disease and cancer. Tobacco is currently taxed about 70% higher than the production cost. This hasn't deterred consumers from using tobacco products.

Health Outcome Metrics and Health Indicators

Infant Mortality and Low Birthweight

  • Infant mortality rate Egypt- 19.7/1000 live births
  • Infant mortality rate US- 6.1/1000 live births

Premature birth rates are the number one contributor for the death of children under the age of 5 in both the US and Egypt. The infant mortality rate of Egypt is 3x that of the United States. This could be because of the quality of healthcare in Egypt compared to that of the US, as well as the advancement of medical procedures and health practices (such as diet and exercise) of Americans compared to the Egyptian citizens.

United States - WHO statistical profile
Egypt - WHO statistical profile


Adults 18 and over- 62% of the population is overweight

Adults 18 and over- 28.9% of the population is obese

Contributing factors could be lack of appropriate physical activity and lack of availability. Also due to lack of portion control and over use of sugar and salt as a common sweetener. The excessive tobacco use can also lead to the population being overweight and obese.

Water Quality

Most cities and citizens of Egypt depend on the Nile as its primary source of daily water. It is necessary for industrial and agricultural needs, drinking and daily use.

The Nile River is exposed to pollution daily both directly and indirectly due to the changing elements, pesticides, chemical fertilizers, oil pollution and agricultural water drainage.

Egyptian traditions and customs also facilitate the spread of pollution as they rid most of their waste by casting it into the river when bathing themselves and their animals, facilitating the spread of disease.

According to the CDC, the United States has one of the safest water supplies in the world.If you are among the 286 million Americans that get their water from a community water system, your tap water is regulated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

The EPA sets standards and regulations for the presence and levels of over 90 different contaminants in public drinking water, including E.coli, Salmonella, Cryptosporidium, metals such as lead, and disinfection by-products.


Percentage of the population living below the poverty line has increased from 26.3% in 2013 to 27.8% in 2015

Percentage of the population living below the poverty line in the United States in 2013=14.5%

Greatest Asset

Oil industry: oil export is crucial for the Egyptian economy

Egypt produces 630,600 barrels of oil a day, and exports 155,200 barrels per day, approximately.

The country has huge oil reserves, 37 billion barrels proven and potentially more in uncharted areas, which can act as fuel for the economy for coming decades.

Largest Threat= Water Pollution

With so many people relying on the Nile for drinking, agricultural, and municipal use, the quality of that water should be of pivotal importance. But, in reality, Nile is being polluted by municipal and industrial waste, with many recorded incidents of leakage of wastewater, the dumping of dead animal carcasses, and the release of chemical and hazardous industrial waste into the river.

It is estimated by the year 2020, Egypt will be consuming 20% more water that it has

It is imperative on the Egyptian government and the entire population of to act immediately and effectively to implement water conservation techniques and control water pollution throughout the country.

Vulnerable Target Population=

Unemployed Youth

70% of the current 3.7 million unemployed are between the age of 15 and 29.

What is causing this? Overpopulation. The population of the country is greater than the number of available jobs.

What is being done about it?

In recent years, millions of dollars have been donated to instill sustainable growth and development and to chip away at the current percentage of those living in poverty.

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is at the forefront of international organizations helping Egypt achieve economic stability and poverty reduction. It has created a plan called the UNDP Strategic Plan 2014–2017 for Egypt which prioritizes the elimination of poverty in Egypt.

The Egypt Network for Integrated Development (ENID) is a pilot program the UNDP is testing in Egypt. The premise of the program is to empower individuals in rural areas by upgrading public services and providing more efficient agricultural and off-farm occupations.

Through these efforts, people can build and grow their own businesses. This will promote sustainable economic growth and development in these areas

What else can be done?

Structural reforms to the business environment, it takes 218 days (on average) to get a construction permit in Egypt, compared to 29 days in Korea. That is 218 days that a company is out of work.

Correct the financial system, only 10% of people in Egypt have bank accounts. Increasing the diffusion of financial services and extending more credit to small job-creating businesses could help the economy by providing more jobs.

Improving the educational system. Jobs cannot be created without aligning the education system to prepare graduates for what is needed in the modern labor market. What they are currently learning in school, does not correlate with the current job needs.

Final Question:

What can be done for Egyptian citizens to help decrease their cardiovascular disease rates and to help increase their levels of physical activity?


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Created with images by MartinStr - "air bubbles diving underwater" • vanimelde - "Egypt" • RamyRaoof - "Baby with Flag of Egypt" • Simon Matzinger - "The forest waves the sun goodbye." • Человек с Урала - "The bedouins."

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