John Short "...at the heart of globalization is an ambiguity...globalization is making places both different and the same. It is bringing peoples closer apart and places further together.” (Global Dimensions: Space, Place and the Contemporary World 9).

“Global Dis/Integration: The Middle Eastern Countries Trump Excludes/Includes”

John Agnew "...the dominant geopolitical imagination arose from European–American experience but was then projected on to the rest of the world and into the future in the theory and practice of world politics.” (Geopolitics: Re-Visioning World Politics 2).

The World Divided: (Re)Shaping/Shifting Western Modern Geopolitical Imagination (from Eurocentric to U.S. centred) and Uneven Distribution of Power in the Global Hierarchy (1941-WWII)

David Sibley “Relations between groupings of states are similarly informed by notions of purity and defilement, good and evil, in order to secure solidarity in the conduct of international relations. It is convenient to have an alien other hovering on the margins.” (Geographies of Exclusion 110)

Middle East with its Islamic identity (state/religion) in the Global Hierarchy

John Agnew "The one world-picture, therefore, is not a composition of equal and pacific elements but a hierarchy of places, from known to unknown, from most friendly to most dangerous. The best-known representation of this character is that of a dichotomous global West and East, in which the former is seen as the total opposite and, hence, definitive standard for the latter.” (Geopolitics: Re-Visioning World Politics 15-16).

Valentine Chriol 1903 Defining the Middle Eastern Question

Middle East Key Players: Shifting Internal/External Geopolitical Relations

Shifting Borders and Changing Territories of Middle East

Dis/Orienting Process of Rhizomatic Mapping

Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari "The rhizome is altogether different, a map and not a tracing. Make a map, not a tracing." (A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia 12)

Dis/Orienting Process of Rhizomatic Mapping: Taking Multiple Pathways/My Own Flight of Lines

Denis Cosgrove “Western cosmography and European globalism would henceforth be deeply colored by Christian historical narrative and claims to universal redemption.” (Apollo's Eye 55)

Edward Said “The Orient was almost a European invention, and had been since antiquity a place of romance, exotic beings, haunting memories and landscapes, remarkable experiences.” (Orientalism 1).

Gayatri Spivak "...a question of developing a vigilance for systemic appropriations of the social capacity to produce a differential that is one basis of exchange into the networks of cultural of class- or gender- identity...the postcolonial teacher can help to develop this vigilance rather than continue pathetically to dramatize victimage or assert a spurious identity. She says 'no' to the 'moral luck' of the culture of imperialism while recognizing that she must inhabit it, indeed invest it, to criticize it." (Poststructuralism 206)

How can we dis-other/de-Orientalize the geography of Middle East?

Rhizomatic Socio-Spatiality of Identity Formations

Carto-Rhetorical Deconstructive Reading

Divided and Fixed Middle East in Western Delineations

Ethnic and Religious Heterogeneity of Middle East

Transformative Maps of Middle East: From Near East to Middle East to Greater Middle East

Alfred T. Mahan first (acknowledged) use and geographical definition of Middle East in 1902 in London National Review

Sykes-Picot 1916 Dividing Middle East to Territories Claimed by European Great powers

From Left to Right: 1) Map of Middle East by British Royal Geographical Society 1920 and 2) Middle East by British Royal Air Force 1939

From Left to Right: 1)Middle East Official British Usage (Abandoning Near East) 1952 and 2)USSR Defining Near and Middle East 1967

From Left to Right: 1) Middle East Defined by the U.S. Department of State 1992 and 2) Middle East Defined by CIA, Directorate of Intelligence, 2002

Strategic and Persuasive Maps of Middle East

Chicago Daily Tribune 1942

U.S. Central Intelligence Agency 1945 Tribes of Iran

Los Angeles Times 1950

U.S. Central Intelligence Agency 1951 Middle East Oil

USSR 1967 Maps of (1) Mediterranean Lands and Iraq, Palestine, and Lebanon, and (2) Arabian Peninsula. Bahrein (Bahrain) Islands- Near and Middle East

Historical Roots of Ethnic and Religious Diversity of Middle East

From Left to Right: 1) The Arab Homeland, Arab Atlas, 1965, Egyptian Ministry of Education, 12-13. and 2) Political World Map, General Arab Atlas, 1969, Said Sabagh, 15.

French Atlas Geopolitique du Moyen-Orient Et Du Monde Arabe (1993) raking Middle Eastern Countries according to 'Severity of Islam' in the context of post-Gulf War period.

Edward Said “Not for nothing did Islam come to symbolize terror, devastation, the demonic, hordes of hated barbarians. For Europe, Islam was a lasting trauma.” (Orientalism 59)

A Case Study: Geocultural Kurdish Homeland

Map of the Kurdish Regions: The Kurdish Homeland

Various Borders of Kurdistan

From Left to Right: 1) The Kurdish Claims at the Paris Peace Conference 1919 and 2)The Autonomous Kurdistan as Proposed by the Treaty of Sevres 1920

Kurds the Lost Tribe by Newsweek, ‘‘History’s Goad,’’ 1946

Dream of Kurdistan by Washington Post, ‘‘Kurds Hope to Attain Autonomy,’’ 1991

Threat of Communism and Kurdistan Time Magazine, ‘‘Report on the Kurds,’’ 1952

The Greater Kurdistan as Claimed by Kurdish Nationalist Organisations

The Project of 'Rhizomatic Mappings of Middle East(s)

Assassin's Creed: In-Game Map of Damascus

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