Cells are what make up everything, to plants to us humans. But have we ever taken the time to get to understand them?
The cell theory: All living organisms are composed of one or more cells, cells are the basic unit of structure in all organisms and all cells are made from pre-existing cells.
To start off with, cells are the things that make up every single living thing on earth and can only be seen under a microscope. Cells include little things called organelles. Organelles are the cell equivalent to organs, and they keep the cell alive. cell organelles include:
- Golgi apparatus, which receives proteins and lipids from the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rough ER) and modifies them, then packs them into sealed droplets called vesicles.
Golgi Apparatus from: http://biologypop.com/golgi-apparatus-golgi-complex-info/
- Smooth endoplasmic reticulum, which is a network of tubes within the cell and has a smooth surface, with no ribosomes attached to it.
- Rough Endoplasmic reticulum, which is found all through a cell. Ribosomes attach themselves to the Rough ER.
- Ribosomes are responsible for the assembly of many proteins and produce RNA. RNA is used to synthesize proteins.
- Nucleus, which houses the nucleolus and is referred to as the 'Boss' office' with the nucleolus being the 'boss'. The nucleus contains most of the cell's DNA molecules organized into structures called chromosomes.
DID YOU KNOW??
Each human cell contains roughly two meters of DNA!! that's alot for a small little thing!!
- Cell membrane, which is the organelle that controls which lipids and proteins enter and exit the cell, like a gatekeeper.
- Lysosomes, which are organelles that contain digestive enzymes. They digest excess organelles and food particles.
Big URL. I hope there isn't another one this big!
- Vacuole, which is the big crater in the cell which holds materials and waste.
- Centriole, which are two tube looking things and help with cell division in animal cells. They help in the formation of the spindle fibers that separate the chromosomes during cell division.
- Cytoskeleton, which is a frame that keeps all the organelles in place, just like how a skeleton keeps all the organs in place.
- Mitochindria, which produce energy for the cell.
- And finally, cytoplasm, which is the liquid that all the organelles float in.
So, there you have it! All of the things that you need to know about cells. We have stated all the organelles in the human cell and their function and we have had a look at some diagrams too! lets sum up:
Every single living thing is made up of cells; from tiny little plants to huge animals! Cells are little things that are so small that they can only be seen under a microscope. Cells contain organelles, which are the cells equivalent to organs. Some main organelles include: Golgi apparatus, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, rough endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, nucleus which houses the nucleolus, cell membrane, lysosomes, vacuole, centriole, cytoskeleton and mitochondria. But most importantly, the 3 rules of the cell theory.
1. All living organisms are composed of one or more cells.
2. Cells are the basic unit of structure in all organisms.
3. All cells are made from pre-existing cells.