Chapter 26 The Nervous System

Central Nervous System-The part of the nervous system consistsing of the brain and spinal cord. It controls thought, dictates action, and interprets stimuli.
Peripheral Nervous System- Consits of the various nerves which branch out from the spinal cord. The PNS picks up stimuli and controls the movement of the body's muscles.
Somatic Nervous System-The part of the PNS that allows for the voluntary movement of skeletal muscles. Comsists of sensory and motor nerves.
Autonomic Nervous System-The part of the PNS responsibke for the involuntary functions of the body, such as digestion or the beating of one's heart.
Parasympathetic Nervous System-A division of the autonomic nervous system, it controls actions that conserve the body's energy and reduce activity. Known as the "rest and digest system".
Sympathetic Nervous System-The division of the autonomic system which controls actions that increase activity amd emergy use, such as your "fight or flight" reaction. Known as the "feed and breed" system.
Sensory Neurons-Neurons responsible for the detection of external stimuli and their conversion into electrical signals which can be sent via the PNS and interpreted by the CNS.
Interneuron-Neurons that transmit electrical signals from one neuron to another, usually from sensory neurons to motor neurons.
Motor Neurons-Neurons which directly or indirectly control the movement of muscles that allows for the body to move.
Neuromuscular Junction-A region where a chemical synapse is formed between a motor neuron and muscle. This synapse allows the nerve to send the necessary signals to the muscle in question.
Acetylcholine-The chemical which acts as the main neurotransmitter in humans and many animal species. This chemical is released by nerve cells to transmit signals between cells.
Norepinephrine and Epinephrine-Hormones released by the body in situations of extreme stress. They dictate whether the body will choose "fight or flight".
Synapse-The small junction between nerve cells where various chemicals (known as neurotransmitters) must be released to allow for electrical signals to cross.
White Matter-Thick bundles of nerve axons which connect the various areas of grey matter within the brain.
Grey Matter-Regions of tightly clustered neuron cell bodies which controls most of the human body's thoughts and functions.
Cerebral Cortex-The layer of folded gray matter covering mist of the cerebrum. It plays a vital role in human consciousness.
Lobes of the Brain-Division if the brain into four groups based on their function. The frontal lobe dictates personality, judgment, speech and self-awareness. The parietal lobe controls the senses, spacial and visual perception, and the interpretation of language. The occipital lobe handles the interpretation of vision. The temporal lobe controls memory, hearing, and organization.
Limbic System-A series of glands and structures which control function like emption, long-term memory, behavior, and motivation.

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