The Periodic table is a table that was configured by the man known as Dmitri Mendeleev. He made it by using the atomic weight of the elements. But soon a man named Henry Moseley Came along and modified the element table, not by weight, but rather by Charge.
It is broken down into many groups.
Metals: Metals are the most solid in the table, it is often judged by weight or ductility. The ability to rust. Etc. Its found widely around the table and is one of the most abundant. (Ex: Iron,Gold)
Non-Metals: Non-Metals are, as you could guess, anything but the metals. Such as gasses or liquid.
Metaloids: Metalloids are a interesting group. They are a step ladder in between the metals and non-metals, a bridge, they hold a little bit of both worlds but they do make semiconductors.
Protons: Protons are positive charged particles around an atom.
Electrons: They are primary the same thing but they instead orbit around the atom. Negatively charged.
Neutrons: Neutrons are mainly a sorta "Relaxed" Particle. The center.
The most reactive elements are the ones that are the farthest from the noble gasses. The noble gasses are the most relaxed and refused to be altered.
17 groups and 7 periods.