Ancient Greece project By, Skylar Hope

Writing Systems

Their alphabet and language was one thing that all the Greeks had in common. The Greek alphabet is still used today in some places. Today the Greek letters are often used in mathematics. Also they are often used in collages for fraternities and sororities in the USA. The Greeks learned about writing and alphabet from the Phoenicians. They took most of the letters or tweaked the letters in the Phoenicians alphabet. The Greeks were the first to use vowels in their alphabet. There were 24 letters in the Greek alphabet. The Greek letters were also used Greek numerals, science, and math. The Greek letters could be used as constants, variables, and functions in words. The Greek alphabet comes from the first two letter s in the Greek alphabet, “Alpha” and “beta”. Did you know that 30% of the English words are based on the Greek words. The Greek alphabet was one of the things that kept Greece together so therefore it was very important to the Greeks.

Religion

The Greeks believed that their gods would make their lives better if pleased. This caused many Greeks to pray and give gifts to their gods. Each of Greece's gods had a job. The Greeks also believed that their gods would take care of them after death. They believed in many different gods and goddesses. Each of these gods and goddesses controlled a part of the environment. There was a god or goddesses for everything. It was very important for the Greeks to please their gods. Happy gods would reward and mad gods would punish. People in Ancient Greece had places in their house where they would pray to these gods. Also shrines were made for the gods were Greeks could pray and present gifts to their gods and goddesses. Their was a temple in every city state in Greece. The temple showed the wealth of the city. The temples featured status of the gods and goddesses. These sculptures were carved after the priest. Religious ceremonies and festivals were held in the temples. Priests job was to look over the temple and it’s visitors. The priest was respected for his “ability” to talk to the gods and goddesses. Surprisingly the gods and goddesses were like us, they fought, had children, fell in love, argued, played music, and fought in wars. The 12 most important gods and goddesses lived on Mount Olympus. Mount Olympus was the highest mountain in Greece. The 12 gods were all related to each other or family. The most powerful god or the king of all gods is Zeus. Zeus is the god of thunder and sky. The religion in Ancient Greece was very important to the Greeks, they would do anything for the gods so they would have good fortune.

Challenge, Relegion

Position is one of the many Greek gods. He is the god of the sea ad protector of all the aquatic features in the world. Zeus and Hades is Poseidon's brothers. He was the lord of the sea. He was greatly worshiped by sea men. He married Amphitrite, a sea nymphs. Poseidon created the first horse to impress Demeter. His weapon was a trident which he could use to shake the earth. He was the second most powerful, Zeus being the king of all gods.

Zeus was the god of the sky and the ruler of Olympian gods. He is the supreme ruler of the gods, as well as lord of the sky and rain. His weapon was a lightning bolt that he threw done from the clouds at people who displeased him. He married Hera, but she displeased him. She was the goddess of marriage and childbirth. Zeus could create storms, tempests, and intense darkness over the land. Zeus was the all knowing. He decided what the gods powers were and if displeased he would get very mad.

Art

Art was not just sculptures and paintings for the Greeks their was way more than that to art. Drama is a type of entertainment for the Greeks. Drama was one of the Greeks favorite way of entertainment in the theater. It began as a festival for Greek gods and goddesses but them blossomed into classic entertainment for the Greeks. It was a big part of the culture in Greece. The theaters were quite large, some could hold up to 10,000 people!The two main types of Drama was tragedy and comedy. Tragedies were serious plays that taught a lesson to the audience. The comedies were light and often made fun of Ancient Greek celebrities and their government. The actors sometimes wore masks to transition from one character to another. Art in general was a type of art. The Greeks hoped that their art would inspire people. Greeks often painted murals of the gods and goddesses. The Greeks enjoyed their murals, and unfortunately little to none survived. The Greeks also made large detailed vases and pottery. On the pottery the Greeks would paint detailed paintings of their gods and goddesses. The Greeks were incredible painters based on their detail work. The Greeks wanted people to see reason, moderation, balance, and harmony in their art work. They succeeded, many artists today are inspired by the Greeks work. The Ancient Greeks had a unique style of architect that is still copied today. The Greeks architect was known for tall columns, intricate details, symmetry, harmony, and balance. The most well done architect that the Greeks created was the temples for the gods and goddesses. Based on how well done the architect is in the temple it shows the wealth of the city state. The Greeks built most of their buildings in three types of styles doric, ionic, and corinthian. The temples were very grand and featured many coulombs. The most famous temple in Ancient Greece is called the Parthenon located in Athens. It has 46 outer columns all 6 feet in diameter. Myths are another type of art. Myths are stories based on gods and hero's. The myths were also based on the nature of the world and how the gods and goddesses affected it. Myths are a part of the Ancient Greek religion. Myths were based on the fact that gods and goddesses can be punished or rewarded. Like us mortals. The myths were stories that told the events of the gods lives. The impact of art on Greece was quit large. In ancient Greece art was balanced and harmonized. The art was a way to praise their gods too. The Greeks were very proud of their detailed art. Today some types of art is modeled after the Greek sense of style. Greece was known for perfection. The fantastic art pieces could be traded and sold. Also it could be given to the gods as a offering. This they believe would give them good fortune. When the Greek ideas spread it was called the Hellenistic Era. The Hellenistic Era started from Alexander's conquest. After Alexander the great conquered Asia most sculptures and artwork from the Greeks influenced Southwest Asia. During the Hellenistic Era Greek ideas and their culture spread. The word Hellenistic means “like Greeks.” Art was very important to the Greeks and they took pride in their beautifully detailed artwork.

challenge, Art

Through temples, sculptures, and pottery the pieces of art showed the Greeks areta culture in art. The word areta means excellent and reaching your full potential. The Greek art inspires many people today. The Greek art gave us today something to look up too. The Greeks believed that every piece in a building mattered giving it it’s amazing detail. Architect in Ancient Greece often featured columns, friezes, and pediments. This gave Ancient Greek architect distinct character. Many of these same crafts and methods are still used today to create beautiful architect. Here are three different types of columns doric, ionic, and corinthian. These Are some types of columns that were used in Ancient Greece and still used today. Many buildings look to the Greeks culture for inspiration. The Greeks were first known for to use tragedies in their dramas. This greatly affected the way that people today develop plays, movies, and television shows. Greek myths are looked at as fake but they still have an impact on us today. Businesses are named after the gods, stars and planets are too. Even some of the English language is based on the gods featured in the myths. It does not have a huge impact on us today but if you look closely you will see the subtle references to the gods and hero's in the Greek myths.

Class division

Each Greek city state was run by their citizens. Citizens are members of a political community. They treat each other like equals and have rights and responsibilities. The Greeks were the first to come up with this idea. The citizens in Greece were free native born men who owned land. In the government's point of view the citizens owned land so they should be responsible for running it. The citizens had the right to gather in a agora (market place) and choose or pass laws. The citizens of Greece also were able to vote, hold office, own property, and defend themselves in court. This was different from both Mesopotamia and Egypt where they had subjects. The people of Egypt and Mesopotamia had no rights, no say in government, and no choice but to obey the government's rule. Rather than in Greece where citizens had rights, had a say in government, and were able to make laws himself. The citizen's duty was to fight for their city state. Citizens joined in wars as hoplites. They had no horses so they fought on foot. The hoplites made good soldiers because of their pride in their city state. The strong loyalty in their city state made the Greeks lack unity with each other.

challenge, Class division

The advantages to having citizens that can only be free native born men who owned land is that it narrows it down. The possibilities that a person can be all four of those things is quite small. Democracy is the most risky type of government. It would take a long time to make laws if everyone in Greece was able to vote or make laws. This helped in some ways to quicken the process of making laws in a democratic city state. A disadvantage to having the restrictions on who can be a citizens and who can’t may negatively affect the people who are not citizens. Imagine if you were a free native woman in Greece. You were missing one part, owning land. In most city states in Greece woman could not own land. In Sparta women had many rights including having the right to own land. Unhappy women or non native people may be frustrated with the government. This may cause them to rebel or boycott. This would cause Greece to fail and hurt them deeply.

Organized government

The Greeks were most famous for their ideas, philosophies, government, and polities

Olgarchy

An oligarchy is a type of government were a small group of 2-5 people are in power. An advantage is that the few people in power can work together and ideas can be influenced by each other. There is a opportunity to plan ideas and more input. The disadvantages are rulers may not agree or unwise rulers may be in power. Unhappy people also may not be heard creating a problem. Sparta and the 13 colonies is an example of a oligarchy.

Tyrany

Tyranny is a type of government were one person was in power. They were often cruel and used force. Depending on the rulers kindness punishments may be brutal. An advantage is making decisions is direct. Also the people who need punishment got punishment. This would stop the violence and make people not want to do crime. The disadvantage to the Tyranny government is unhappy citizens could rebel against the ruler creating a problem. Also not everyone is involved and it is unfair. Examples Kings and Queens, Nazis, and Hitler.

Representative democracy

A Representative democracy is a type of government were citizen make a electoral vote on who is in power. The citizens can vote the ruler of their choice. Advantages are that it may stop unhappy citizens and rebels will occur less. Voting may make people fight among each other creating a ‘’border”. Kind of like now with the election. An example is America today.

Direct democracy

Direct democracy is a type of government where citizens decide and take part in laws that are made. An advantage is it may leave people happy from the fairness. The government is formed to the citizens likings. Disadvantages is it is harder and takes more time to make decisions and laws. The most arguing is in this type of government. Athens is an example of direct democracy

Challenge, organized government

I think that Oligarchy is the best type of government. I believe this because with 2-5 people you can discuss the laws that you are planning to make with your peers. Ideas can then bounce of one another in the small group of rulers. Less people may think the government is unfair like people do with Tyranny government. Also to make laws it does not take forever for everyone to decide like in a democracy. Though the rulers may be unfair and cruel but it is a less chance that all of the rulers in power are cruel, rather the one person holding the fate of the city state. Overall I think that an Oligarchy is the best type of government.

Geography and cities

The geography of Ancient Greece helped to shape the government and culture. Greece was a mountainous land framed with waters. To the west of Greece is the Ionian Sea, to the south is the Mediterranean Sea, and to the East is the Aegean Sea. Thousands of island stretched from mainland Greece all the way to Asia. Mainland Greece is a peninsula, a piece of land framed by water on three sides. Many Greeks made a life from the water as fishers, sailors, and traders. Others settled in farms in the mountains but most of the sites were located near water. Mountains are not ideal for growing crops but the mild weather in some places can produce wheat, barley, olives, and grapes. Also some of the farmers raised livestock like cows and sheep. The mountains and seas divided up the Greeks. As a result the Greeks were very independent. Most people in Greece thought they were not apart of Greece but apart of their city state. The geography played a big part in Greece. The geography helped to form the government and culture. Fun fact 80% of mainland Greece is mountainous. The Pindus mountain range is called the “Spine of Greece” because it runs all the way around mainland Greece.

map of Ancient Greece

Credits:

Created with images by Cebete - "Il Partenone" • chen111 - "plaster classical photography"

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