James L. Leloudis, Professor of History, and Cecelia Moore, PhD, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
With research assistance from Rob Shapard, PhD, and Brian Fennessy, doctoral candidate in History, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Quotations, in order of presentation: "UNC Leader Apologizes for Slavery and Says School Will "Right the Wrongs of History,'" Raleigh News and Observer, October 12, 2018; Francis P. Venable to F. H. Rogers, May 16, 1913, folder 987, University of North Carolina Papers, University of North Carolina Archives #40005; Kemp P. Battle, History of the University of North Carolina, vol. 2 (Raleigh: Edwards and Broughton Printing Company, 1912), 323 (cited text from the dedication plaque corrects typographical errors in Battle); "Notable Events Mark Class Day at the University," Raleigh News and Observer, June 3, 1913; Alexander H. Stephens, "Speech Delivered on the 21st March, 1861, in Savannah, Known as 'The Corner Stone Speech,' Reported in the Savannah Republican," in Henry Cleveland, Alexander H. Stephens, In Public and Private, with Letters and Speeches, Before, During, and Since the War (Philadelphia: National Publishing Company, 1866), 721; "White Men to the Front," The Wilmington Messenger, May 13, 1898; "Monument to Student Soldiers," Wilmington Morning Star, June 15, 1913; Minutes of the Ninth Annual Convention of the United Daughters of the Confederacy, North Carolina Division, October 3-5, 1905 (Newton: Enterprise Job Print., 1906), 46; Minutes of the Twelfth Annual Convention of the United Daughters of the Confederacy, North Carolina Division, October 13-15, 1908 (Newton: Enterprise Job Print., 1909), 82; Minutes of the Thirteenth Annual Convention of the United Daughters of the Confederacy, North Carolina Division, October 13-15, 1909 (Newton: Enterprise Print, 1910), 11-17; Minutes of the Fourteenth Annual Convention of the United Daughters of the Confederacy, North Carolina Division, October 12-14, 1910 (n.p.: n.p., n.d.), 8; Unveiling of Confederate Monument at University, June 2, 1913, series 2.2, folder 26, scans 93-112, Julian Shakespeare Carr Papers, Southern Historical Collection #00141; Dedication of Monument, typescript, Cp378 .UK34, North Carolina Collection; Minutes of the Third Annual Meeting of the United Daughters of the Confederacy, North Carolina Division, October 11-12, 1899 (Raleigh: Capital Printing Company, 1900), 5; speech fragments, series 3, folder 60, William W. Kitchin Papers, Southern Historical Collection #04018, and "The Governor's Speech," Oxford Public Ledger, November 5, 1909; "Corner Stone Laid," The Messenger and Intelligencer (Wadesboro), January 18, 1906; Mrs. S.E.F. (Laura Martin) Rose, Ku Klux Klan, or Invisible Empire (New Orleans: L. Graham Co., 1914), Introduction and 51-52; Francis P. Venable, Acceptance of the Monument, series 4, subseries on education, folder 128, scans 1-2, Francis Preston Venable Papers, Southern Historical Collection #04368, and Unveiling of Confederate Monument at University, June 2, 1913 (above); review of "Birth of a Nation," The Moving Picture World, March 13, 1915, 1587; Armistead Burwell, "The Ideal Confederate Soldier," an address at the unveiling of the Confederate monument in Cornelius, N.C., August 4, 1910, pamphlet, Cp970.76 .B97i, North Carolina Collection; "Decoration Day, A Verbatim Report of the Address of Frederick Douglass at Franklin Square, Rochester, N.Y.," 1894, Speech, Article, and Book File, Frederick Douglass Papers, Library of Congress; "Will Mr. London Answer," and "Did Not Die at Appomattox," Winston (now Winston-Salem) Union Republican, August 29, 1907. The University Archives, North Carolina Collection, and Southern Historical Collection are located in The Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Photographs, in order of presentation: UNC Confederate monument, by Anne Mitchell Whisnant; Soldiers’ Monument postcard, North Carolina Postcards, North Carolina Collection; "Protest Held at UNC"s Silent Sam Statue," ABC11.com, October 25, 2015; removal of the Confederate monument's pedestal, by James Leloudis, January 15, 2019; Silent Sam, by Juande Mondria; UNC Confederate monument with visitors, Wikimedia Commons; first Confederate monument in North Carolina, 1868, Cross Creek Cemetery, Fayetteville, North Carolina Civil War Monuments; old Memorial Hall exterior, old Memorial Hall interior, new Memorial Hall exterior, and Confederate Memorial Plaque, North Carolina Collection Photographic Archives (hereafter, NCCPA); Carolina Alumni Memorial in Memory of Those Lost in Military Service, by William Yeung; Cleveland County Confederate monument, North Carolina Civil War Monuments; North Carolina Confederate monuments chart, by Jason Clemmons, based on information available on the Commemorative Landscapes of North Carolina web site; Emancipation: The Past and The Future, Harper's Weekly, January 24, 1863, printed in color by King & Baird, Philadelphia, 1865, Library Company of Philadelphia; white supremacy mementos, North Carolina Collection; Alamance County Confederate monument, Commemorative Landscapes of North Carolina; UNC Confederate monument plaques, by Cecelia Moore, and Confederate Monument, UNC, Commemorative Landscapes of North Carolina; General Robert E. Lee and staff, Liljenquist Family Collection of Civil War Photographs, Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division (hereafter, LCPPD); Hon. Alexander H. Stephens, NARA identifier 528511, Mathew Brady Photographs of Civil War-Era Personalities and Scenes, Records of the War Department, Office of the Chief Signal Officer, National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, Maryland; Programme at the Unveiling of the Confederate Monument at the University of North Carolina, June 2, 1913, University Ephemera Collection, North Carolina Collection; Locke Craig, Bain Collection, LCPPD; Mrs. Marshall McDiarmid (Mary Lyde) Williams, Archibald Henderson, North Carolina: The Old North State and the New, vol. 5 (Chicago: Lewis Publishing Company, 1941), plate preceding 49; Ku Klux Klan banner, Greg Huffman, "The Group Behind Confederate Monuments Also Built a Memorial to the Klan," Facing South blog, June 8, 2018; Randolph Abbott Shotwell, NCPedia; front cover, Minutes of the Fourteenth Annual Convention of the United Daughters of the Confederacy, North Carolina Division, October 12-14, 1910; Julian Shakespeare Carr, NCCPA; "The Outrage in North Carolina," Harper's Weekly, September 14, 1867; Unveiling of the Confederate Monument, June 2, 1913, North Carolina Postcards, North Carolina Collection; Henry Armand London, Isaac S. London, Pictures and Sketches of My Son (Rockingham, N.C.: I.S. London, 1947), 34; Confederate Veterans Reunion, Washington, D.C., 1917, National Photo Company Collection, LCPPD; cover, [Corner Stone of Confederate Monument Laid] (Orphanage Press: Oxford, N.C., 1909); William Walton Kitchin, Harris & Ewing Collection, LCPPD; Uncle Sam – Guess I'll Keep 'Em, Leslie's Illustrated Weekly Newspaper, June 9, 1898, colorized version from Abe Ignacio, Enrique de la Cruz, Jorge Emmanuel, and Helen Toribio, The Forbidden Book: The Philippine-American War in Political Cartoons (San Francisco: T’Boli Publishing, 2004), 18; Three Sioux in Ghost Dance costumes, Charles R. Savage Photograph Collection, Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University, via Mountain West Digital Library; United Confederate Veterans commemorative postage stamp, 1951, Wikimedia Commons; John Calvin McLauchlin and Mary Elizabeth Caraway McLauchlin, Find a Grave; Anson County Confederate monument, North Carolina Civil War Monuments; frontispiece and title page, Mrs. S.E.F. (Laura Martin) Rose, Ku Klux Klan, or Invisible Empire (New Orleans: L. Graham Co., 1914); advertisement for Rose, Ku Klux Klan, from Confederate Veteran 22 (October 1914), 477; UNC sophomore class, 1907, NCCPA; Brother v. Brother, Taylor Finley, Early Appalachian Photographer, Images by Romano, Summersville, W.V.; "The Birth of a Nation" theatrical poster, Wikimedia Commons; "The Birth of a Nation" screenshot, the Everett Collection; "The Birth of a Nation" movie postcard, Orpheum Theater, Fargo, N.D., Institute for Regional Studies, Archives Artifacts Mss 1597, North Dakota State University Libraries, Fargo, N.D.; Frederick Douglass, Brady-Handy Photograph Collection, LCPPD; soldier group, Civil War Glass Negatives and Related Prints, Civil War Photographs, 1861-1865, LCPPD; UNC Confederate monument close-up, by Matt Couch, WUNC Radio; drinking fountain on the county courthouse lawn, Halifax County, N.C., Farm Security Administration, Office of War Information Collection, LCPPD; front inscription, Confederate monument, state capitol grounds, Raleigh, Commemorative Landscapes of North Carolina; close-up of the Confederate monument in Sylva, Cory Vaillancourt, Smoky Mountain News, image of a crowd, photos from September 11, 2011 demonstration, supporting sources, Confederate monument, UNC, Commemorative Landscapes of North Carolina; North Carolina native Parker David Robbins, Sergeant, 2nd Regiment, U.S. Colored Cavalry, North Carolina Museum of History; Silent Sam, NCCPA. The North Carolina Collection and North Carolina Collection Photographic Archives are located in The Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
For additional archival sources, see: Guide to Researching Campus Monuments and Buildings: "Silent Sam" Confederate Monument, and Guide to Resources About UNC's Confederate Monument.
To learn more about Confederate monuments in North Carolina, see: Commemorative Landscapes of North Carolina and North Carolina Civil War Monuments. The department of history at UNC has compiled a list of additional resources related to Silent Sam and Confederate monuments more generally, available here.