Chapter 15 Madison christopher

SECTION 1- World War I shattered the Enlightenment belief that progress would continue and reason would prevail. In the postwar period, people began questioning traditional beliefs. The brutality of World War I caused philosophers and writers to question accepted ideas about reason and progress. Disillusioned by the war, many people also feared the future and expressed doubts about traditional religious beliefs.
A New Revolution in Science- These thinkers were part of a scientific revolution as important as that brought about centuries earlier by Copernicus and Galileo....... Writers Reflect Society’s Concerns- His books feature people caught in threatening situations they can neither understand nor escape. The books struck a chord among readers in the uneasy postwar years
Revolution in the Arts Although many of the new directions in painting and music began in the prewar period, they evolved after the war.... Artists Rebel Against Tradition Artists rebelled against earlier realistic styles of painting. They wanted to depict the inner world of emotion and imagination rather than show realistic representations of objects.
Literature in the 1920s The brutality of World War I caused philosophers and writers to question accepted ideas about reason and progress. Disillusioned by the war, many people also feared the future and expressed doubts about traditional religious beliefs.
SECTION 2- This chapter is mainly about European nations were rebuilding wartorn economies. They were aided by loans from the more prosperous United States. Only the United States and Japan came out of the war in better financial shape than before.
Unstable New Democracies War’s end saw the sudden rise of new democracies. From 1914 to 1918, Europe’s last absolute rulers had been overthrown. The first of the new governments was formed in Russia in 1917.
The Weimar Republic- it was named after the city where the national assembly met. The Weimar Republic had serious weaknesses from the start. First, Germany lacked a strong democratic tradition. Furthermore, postwar Germany had several major political parties and many minor ones.
Inflation Causes Crisis in Germany Germany also faced enormous economic problems that had begun during the war. Unlike Britain and France, Germany had not greatly increased its wartime taxes.
The Dawes Plan provided for a $200 million loan from American banks to stabilize German currency and strengthen its economy. The plan also set a more realistic schedule for Germany’s reparations payments.Attempts at Economic Stability-
Financial Collapse- s, American economic prosperity largely sustained the world economy. If the U.S. economy weakened, the whole world’s economic system might collapse. In 1929, it did.
SECTION 3- Tis section mainly talks fascism. it was a new, militant political movement that emphasized loyalty to the state and obedience to its leader. Unlike communism, fascism had no clearly defined theory or program. Nevertheless, most Fascists shared several ideas.
Mussolini Takes Control- Rising inflation and unemployment also contributed to widespread social unrest. To growing numbers of Italians, their democratic government seemed helpless to deal with the country’s problems. They wanted a leader who would take action.
Hitler Rises to Power in Germany- t, Hitler found a new beginning. He volunteered for the German army and was twice awarded the Iron Cross, a medal for bravery.-
Hitler Becomes Chancellor- In January 1933, they advised President Paul von Hindenburg to name Hitler chancellor. Thus Hitler came to power legally. Soon after, General Erich Ludendorff, a former Hitler ally, wrote to Hindenburg:
SECTION 4- This really talks about it With the world moving toward war, many nations pinned their hopes for peace on the League of Nations. As fascism spread in Europe, however, a powerful nation in Asia moved toward a similar system. Following a period of reform and progress in the 1920s, Japan fell under military rule.
Militarists Take Control of Japan- t when the Great Depression struck in 1929, many Japanese blamed the government. Military leaders gained support and soon won control of the country. Unlike the Fascists in Europe, the militarists did not try to establish a new system of government.
Japan Invades Manchuria Japanese businesses had invested heavily in China’s northeast province, Manchuria. It was an area rich in iron and coal. In 1931, the Japanese army seized Manchuria, despite objections from the Japanese parliament
European Aggressors on the March- The Italian leader Mussolini dreamed of building a colonial empire in Africa like those of Britain and France. Mussolini Attacks Ethiopia- The Ethiopians had successfully resisted an Italian attempt at conquest during the 1890s.
Democratic Nations Try to Preserve Peace- . Both nations were dealing with serious economic problems as a result of the Great Depression. In addition, the horrors of World War I had created a deep desire to avoid war.
Japan Seeks an Empire- the Japanese government became more democratic. In 1922, Japan signed an international treaty agreeing to respect China’s borders
Militarists Take Control of Japan-Military leaders gained support and soon won control of the country. Unlike the Fascists in Europe, the militarists did not try to establish a new system of government.
Japan Invades Manchuria The army then set up a puppet government. Japanese engineers and technicians began arriving in large numbers to build mines and factories.
European Aggressors on the March- The spears and swords of the Ethiopians were no match for Italian airplanes, tanks, guns, and poison gas. The Ethiopian emperor, Haile Selassie, urgently appealed to the League for help. Although the League condemned the attack, its members did nothing.

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