TOTALITARIANISM Filonzi andrea, fortuna alessio, perelli mattia

TOTALITARIANISM AND VIOLENCE

Totalitarianism refers to an authoritarian political system that controls every aspect of the public and private sectors. Totalitarian regimes establish complete political, social, and cultural control over their subjects, and are headed by a charismatic leader.

There are several characteristics that are common to totalitarian regimes, including:

  • Total control of the military;
  • Total control over means of communication (such as newspapers, propaganda, etc…);
  • Police control with the use of terror as a control tactic;
  • Control of the economy.

There were three types of totalitarian regimes:

  • Fascism: it was created by Mussolini;
  • Nazism: it had as leader Adolf Hitler. The Nazism claimed the superiority of race;
  • Stalinism: it was created by Stalin after the death of Lenin.

The totalitarianism is a system based on violence, in which the violence becomes the real and dominant value, which with time turns in a culture. The organized violence became permissible and sometimes necessary under totalitarian rules, justified by the task to the state ideology and pursuit of the state’s goal. In Nazi Germany and Stalin’s Soviet Union, whole classes of people, such as the Jews and the kulaks (wealthy peasant farmers) respectively, were identified by the jude star or determined marks.

This value forms and constructs the whole institutions of the state and society because it is the only cause of maintaining the existence of the state (power) in the inside and outside level and ultimately becomes the source of legitimacy.

MINORITIES

Rom

The Rom were always isolated by the locals, which accentuated the independent character and the seed units of this people and we always characterized as the way of life by traveling. While they have a strong sense of hospitality, always been treated in a hostile manner and were often victims of persecution, Nazis exterminated more than one million in Germany and the occupied countries. They were accused of being "spies" and were held responsible, such as the Jews, the death of Jesus Christ.

Homosexual

For the nazis this people compromised the birth rate and after 1933 homosexuals were arrested and submit to more and more strict rules. AT the end of age 30 on 1.5 milion of homosexual hundred thousand was accused and teen , fifteen thousand ended their day in the concentration camp with a pink triangle.

Disabled

In 1920 a group of German scientists began to recommend the elimination of disabled considered "useless mouths" . Judged unproductive, and a burden to members of society "healthy and productive". This category included prostitutes, people who refused an employment proposal. They became part of that unfortunately large group of people sentenced to death only mark of distinction a black triangle.

SEGREGATION AND DEPORTATION

The racial segregation is the separation of people into racial or other ethnic groups. We can define it as a cause of racial deportation.

The deportation is a forced movement of a group of people obliged to be in a determined place rather than their home.

The biggest deportation took place in the Second World War by the hands of the Nazi. The Nazi regime has built a series of structures to imprison and then eliminate the “enemies of the state” as they were called. Most of the prisoners, in the early days, were composed by German citizens: communists, socialists, social democrats, gypsies, homosexuals and Jehovah’s witnesses and they were subjected to hard labor. Thousands of them died due to the fact that they were exhausted, malnourished or exposed to the bad weather.

In addition to the concentration camps, the nazists have created the death camps in where the gas chambers were the most used machines.

Under the direction of the SS, the Germans and their collaborators assassinated more than three million people.

Auschwitz

Auschwitz was the largest Nazist extermination camp, opened in 1940. Since 1942 it became the main one for the cancellation of all the Jews in Europe. About 4 million people died there, while survivors were freed by the Russians on 27 January 1945.

Buchenwald

Buchenwald is a German town in Weimar. The camp was different from the others because the people were exterminated through hard work.

The construction of fields, roads, ecc. was completed by a group of deportees. In addition to the construction of the camp, prisoners were used as manpower near industrial plants of all kinds, particularly in the manufacture of missiles.

50.000 prisoners died there.

Dachau

Dachau is a German town near Munich. It was a model camp, deportees developed the most sophisticated techniques of physical and psychological annihilation, like bunkers. In there, prisoners were left standing in cubicles of 60 square meters without food and water or much worst, they were used for pseudo-scientific experiments.

Mauthausen

Mauthausen is a location in the upper part of Austria, near Linz. It was famous for the “stairs of death” that the prisoners used to reach the mine. In march 1942 gas chambers were added, which had been working without stop three times a week until 1945.

SOURCES

  • www.britannica.com
  • www.ushmm.org
  • www.oxfordscholarship.com

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