Everyday Circuits Abrar & Tanvika

Electricity

Electricity is a form of energy that exists in the presence of charged particles. These charged particles are atoms. Atoms are the tiniest particles in matter, consisting of protons, neutrons and electrons. They can be charged positively, negatively or neutrally; depending on the difference between the amount of protons and the amount of electrons in an atom.

We use electricity in our daily lives to make our lives easier and to create new innovations. For example, electricity is used in houses as lighting, phone chargers, refrigerators, stoves etc. It is an modern essential in our lives because nowadays, our innovations all require electricity. We are dependent on these innovations, which is why, in today's world, we cannot live without electricity. For example, if it were not for telephones, there is not much ways that we can talk to people that live far away and for people who are really busy in their work won't be able to order food in their phone and will have to go to the restaurants, leaving their work, to buy food.

Our topic

We are researching on everyday circuits and how they relate to our learning in class. Electricity now exists everywhere in our society. The reason why we chose this topic is because we use different types of circuits everyday, and circuits require electricity to function. An example of this would be the lighting in our house. If we did not know how it worked, what dangers could we be exposed to?

Resources & sources of energy

Electricity is generated by two different sources of power:

Renewable Resources:

Renewable resources are resources that can be replenished quickly to gain more in the same lifetime. An example of a source of renewable energy would be solar power. As this resource is natural, it is changed into electricity by being drawn in by solar panels and transformed into electricity. These types of resources are more beneficial than non renewable resources, due to the fact that renewable resources can be replaced far quicker than non renewable sources of energy.

Benefits and cost:

Environmental & Social: Renewable resources can benefit in our day to day lives. An example would be the usage of trees. We need wood as an essential in most our furniture and tools. All living thing rely on trees for survival. The great thing about it is that trees can be grown back easily. It doesn’t cost much because it is trees are natural resources. Maybe a little time is all it costs. However, we must maintain the same tree planting rate. Otherwise, the trees will not be grown back and therefore become non renewable.

Economic: Canadians use renewable resources as much as possible to avoid wasting nonrenewable resources. Using wood as an example again, carpenters use them a lot instead of minerals, like metals, gold, etc. This furniture can be sold later. It takes longer to acquire minerals than it takes to grow back a tree.

Non- Renewable Resources:

Non renewable resources are sources of energy that can not be replenished in a short period of time. An example of non renewable energy is coal. Coal is a black or brown rock found underground which we use as fuel for creating electricity. It is considered non renewable because coal is not something we can gain in a short period of time and it is not something we could just recreate. This type of resources are very problematic for us. If we use an amount of non renewable resources, we lose that amount of resources for the rest of our lives. To counter this, scientists are creating substitutes for non renewable sources of energy. An example would be using solar power instead of burning fossil fuels in power plants, which saves fossil fuels to be used for other needs and prevent the pollution that it causes.

Benefits and cost:-

Environmental: Again, non renewable resources benefit us in our daily lives. However, they take a long time to replenish if possible, sometimes not at all. Also, they can be harmful to ecosystems and environments. A common example would be natural gases. They are used in our daily lives for transportation, but the same oil we use we don’t ever get back in a 100 year long term. It costs a lot to produce these resources like fossil fuels etc. It also costs money to buy these resources.

Economic: these resources are used widely by humans for different purposes like oil and diesel is used in vehicles. These resources are very affordable and abundant so it can be used by anyone. these are the reasons why these can be economically beneficially. it doesn't cost a lot of money to buy these but it cost some money to make these.

Static Electricity

At least once in a day, people would experience a discharge of static electricity, or when static electricity is transferred altogether to one point in another object. Static electricity is the present electric charges that have a difference in their amount of protons versus their amount of electrons. It takes place when two objects are electrostatically charged.

We use static electricity in our daily lives. It is used to control pollution, by applying static charge to the dirt particles in the air and then attracting those charged particles to an oppositely charged device called electrostatic precipitator (ESP).

You can feel static electricity when you touch metallic objects, or conductors, and shock yourself. Conductors are the material through which electricity can flow easily and freely like metallic wires, etc..

Electrostatics

Electrostatics is the (the study of) non moving electric charges in an atom. The non moving electric charges are protons and neutrons, whereas electrons move freely. Electrostatically charged atoms are usually the atoms that gain the electrons during the electrostatic transfer of electricity.

Difference between static electricity and electrostatic electricity.

When you rub a balloon to your hair, and all the electrons transfer from atoms in your hair to the atoms in the balloon. The atoms in the hair now should be positively charged, whereas the atoms in the balloon should now be negatively charged. Static electricity would be the attraction of the atoms in the strands of hair, whereas electrostatic electricity would be the movement of the strands of hair.

Transfer of electricity

Electricity is transferred from one object to another electrostatically. For example when you rub a balloon against a sweater, all the electrons from the sweater will go into the balloon which will result in the balloon will get attracted towards the sweater. In this case, when the electrons transfer for the sweater to the balloon is called transfer of electricity. transfer of electricity can take place in 3 ways, Friction, Conduction and Induction.

Friction - When two objects are rubbed against each other and there is transfer of electrons from one material to another. For example, when you rub a balloon against a sweater, the electrons from the sweater transfer into the balloon producing static electricity due to which the balloon sticks to the sweater.

Conduction - When there is transfer of electrons through physical contact. For example, when you get electric shocks by touching a metallic door handle.

Induction - When electricity is transferred by being in proximity to a heavily charged atom. You get shocked without touching the object. An example would be when you get an electrostatically charged object and bring it near the strands of your hair. This will cause your hair to attract to it, because the atoms in the balloon is negatively charge and negatively charged atoms would attract positive and, in this case, neutral atoms.

Left (Balloon rubbed to another object): Friction Top: Conduction Left (Hair): Induction

Current electricity

Current electricity is when electrons continuously flow through circuits. Circuits are pathways for electrons to flow through. This type of electricity exists in any type of technology, whether it is medical or even transportation. A couple of examples of where current electricity flows are in streetlamps, televisions, computers and other devices that run on electricity

Types of circuits:

Series Circuit: A circuit with one path (one loop) that all of the electric charges flow through. Table lamps run on series circuit, because the lamp only has one wire that connects the lamp to the electric socket.

Parallel Circuit: A circuit with more than one pathway (more than one loop) that the electric charges flow through. Normally light switches run on parallel circuits. You can confirm this when you look at old lights. Sometimes you would see maybe one out of three that may not work. This is because only one loop in the parallel circuit became open. However, that loop would be the only loop that would stop working.

Open circuit: An incomplete circuit that has an opening in its loop(s). This circuit would not work because the opening in the circuit breaks of the pathway that the electrons would pass through.

Closed circuit: A complete circuit with no openings and completely closed in. The pathway is not broken anywhere in the circuit and the circuit would function normally. This is because the circuit's pathway is in tact and electrons can flow through it easily.

Composition of a Simple Circuit:

Conducting wires:

Wires that create a pathway for electrons in a circuit to flow through.

Energy source:

A source of energy that contain electrons. Normally a battery in most circuits.

Appliance/device:

The electrical object we are trying to create function for with the use of electrons.

Types of currents

Alternating Current (AC):

Full form of AC is Alternating Current. This type of current works by charges going in opposite directions periodically in a circuit. Any appliance or device that needs to be plugged into a electric socket runs on AC. They run on AC currents due to safety reasons (avoid fires). The electric companies would send electricity to your house over the power lines (which, by the way, also runs on AC currents) and the electricity runs into the wires that run to the power sockets, which is where the electricity is sent back to be saved. Most simple appliances and devices, like lamps and phone chargers, that run on AC currents are usually series circuits.

Direct Current (DC):

Full form of DC is Direct Current. This type of current works by charges going in the same direction at the same pace. DC is used everywhere in society in form of a portable electricity source (batteries). From laptops to cell phones, Direct currents run in devices that are forever running over electricity (when the circuit is closed). Most times, AC electricity is turned into DC because the AC currents that provide you with electricity at home are the same currents that allow your TV to show light. When the electricity is used in simple appliances, that is when AC currents are turned into DC currents. However, in appliances, like refrigerators, where there are different parts of the appliance that electricity flows towards: this is where AC currents do not change into DC currents.

AC DC

Calculating Electricity BilL

Anyone who uses electricity would pay electricity bills. They know that, but they probably do not know that they could lessen amount they need to pay. The amount that gets shown on your paycheck would be affected by how long you use an appliance and how much power is being used into it. The more of either of those, the more you would have to pay when your bills come in. An effective way to lessen the electricity costs in your house would be by using appliances effectively.

There are two things you need to know to plan out how you could decrease your electricity bills and this is how:

Calculate Efficiency:

There is actually a way to calculate how efficiently one is using their appliance. The equation is following:

This basically shows how the more energy used, the more efficient the circuit is primarily for that appliance. Which also means, the more energy left over, the more electricity in a circuit is being unused and wasted. The more efficiently your device handles electricity, the more your bills will decrease.

Foreseeing costs...

Like calculating efficiency, we can also calculate cost:

Formulae:

Power x Time = Energy use

Energy use x Rate of use = Cost

These will help one foresee how much their electricity bills would be in the future. Using the knowledge from these, one must use the other solutions to drastically lessen the costs for their electricity.

Those are just ways to monitor your electricity bills. Here are ways you can actually decrease your bills:

Using better devices/appliances

For most essential appliances, in our days, we have created better appliances in order to conserve energy. A common known example of this would be light bulbs. A decade back, whenever we touched (Incandescent) light bulbs, we would burn our fingers. The reason for this is because there is too much unused electricity in that type of light bulb. In addition, the electricity that we use in light bulbs creates light and heat. In order to fix this issue, scientists have created a new light bulb, called a fluorescent light bulb, just to reduce the amount of unused electricity. Using this light bulb would cost you some more to buy it. However, it saves money for you in the long run. The uniqueness about this light bulb is that it requires less energy than in an incandescent light bulb. Also, the flowing of electrons that move through the coil (for your knowing, the continuous circling of electrons is reason why the electricity turns into thermal and light energy) emits less light than when the mercury vapor in the fluorescent light bulbs are lit by electricity to be turned into UV rays and later safe light to see.

Those are just ways to monitor your electricity bills. Here are ways you can actually decrease your bills:

Using better devices/appliances:

For most essential appliances, in our days, we have created better appliances in order to conserve energy. A common known example of this would be light bulbs. A decade back, whenever we touched (Incandescent) light bulbs, we would burn our fingers. The reason for this is because there is too much unused electricity in that type of light bulb. In addition, the electricity that we use in light bulbs creates light and heat. In order to fix this issue, scientists have created a new light bulb, called a fluorescent light bulb, just to reduce the amount of unused electricity. Using this light bulb would cost you some more to buy it. However, it saves money for you in the long run. The uniqueness about this light bulb is that it requires less energy than in an incandescent light bulb. Also, the flowing of electrons that move through the coil (for your knowing, the continuous circling of electrons is reason why the electricity turns into thermal and light energy) emits less light than when the mercury vapor in the fluorescent light bulbs are lit by electricity to be turned into UV rays and later safe light to see.

Switch off idle devices/appliances

As we all know, people in our society have a knack for leaving appliances on without actually using it. This should not happen. The easiest way to save electricity is if we start switching off appliances in the house when we are not using it. An example would be lights in a room. Sometimes, children leave lights on when they are not in the room. They may be scared of the dark and that's fine, but it does raise your costs a little.

ConclusioN

Environmental & Energy/Matter:

Electricity is used in our daily lives and we depend on it as an essential. However, in some parts of the world, people are using the resources that we cannot get back to produce electricity. This is bad because we are running out of these resources and losing opportunities to use them for others. For example, we use oil to create electricity at power plants, whereas we could use oil for transportation fields. Instead of using oil, we can use windmills, power grids, watermills or even solar panels. Not only are we limiting the amount of pollution made by the ashes that are created by the oils we burn, but also we are saving oil in the process too.

Society & Economy

Now knowing how important electricity for people in our community, we must start conserving it. Using the methods to save costs in our electricity bills, we can start conserving electricity. The reason behind this is to make sure we do not use up our modern essential and lose it. Electricity is now the backbone of everything in our lives. If we run out of it, nothing will function the way it should. Furthermore, the inventions we use today for our everyday work would not work and possibly prevent us from finishing our jobs.

In conclusion, electricity is extremely important in our lives, so we have to make sure it will stick around for centuries to come.

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Credits:

Created with images by wilhei - "electricity voltage light" • skeeze - "lightning strike night" • cegoh - "singapore river skyline" • tookapic - "windmill turbine renewable" • Sam Bald - "Magic Ball" • Dirigentens - "Laddad" • Nadya Peek - "left: magnet right: coil" • blickpixel - "board electronics computer" • Rennett Stowe - "Get Plugged In" • Iwan Gabovitch - "Inside an iShare S200" • Kai Hendry - "Electricity bill" • Jason Lander - "sprint bill" • werner22brigitte - "highway night traffic"

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