tHE fIGHT FOR gAY mARRIAgE By: Mezghen Noory and Tiffani Russell

How did gay marriage become a constitutional right?

On June 26, 2015, gay marriage was legalized in all fifty states. To receive such a prestige ruling by the Supreme Court in the Obergefell v.s. Hodges case to create real change in the LGBT community for marriage, a worldwide attention had to be set on the implications those of homosexuality had dealt with. Many demonstrations targeted the government to bring change on the injustice of homosexuals and justify that anyone in the LGBT community should face the same rights as those of another sexuality.

A photo taken at a rally to legalize gay marriage in all 50 states. His button on his backpack states, "GAY MARRIAGE IS A CON (Constitutional) RIGHT!"

Organizations that led to the awareness of the conflicts Gay couples had faced

The Mattachine Society

Harry Hay began a secret underground homosexual organization in Los Angeles, known as The Mattachine society, which became very successful on helping homosexuals gain their rights.

Hay formed "The Mattachine Society," the first national gay rights organization. He fought for worker’s rights in the labor movement, then became an active member of the Communist Party.

Irish-American Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Group of Boston

In 1993, the South Boston Allied War Veterans Council organized the St. Patrick's Day Parade. The Council was determined not to allow the Irish-American Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Group of Boston (GLIB) to participate in the march. The GLIB asked to join, hoping to their express their pride of being of Irish heritage as openly gay, lesbian, and bisexual individuals.

The Massachusetts State Court determined that the Council had to include GLIB under a state law that prohibits prejudice behavior against a person due to their sexuality in a public environment. “They had dealt with the First Amendment issues of freedom of association and freedom of expression” (“Hurley V. Irish-American Gay, Lesbian & Bisexual Group”).

American Civil Liberties Union

In the ACLU's acts to ensure that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals can openly prosper with equal rights with the freedom of expression and association, they have brought worldwide attention to the LGBT community and the dysfunction of their marriage due to courts (“American Civil Liberties Union”).

"To advocate for individual rights ólitigating, to legislate, and to educate the public on a broad array of issues affecting individual freedom in the United States" (“American Civil Liberties Union”).

Civil cases that led to the constitutional gay marriage

Petty Officer V. Keith Meinhold v.s. Navy

Judge Hatter had Petty Officer V. Keith Meinhold reinstated, for he was previously released for announcing he was indeed, homosexual. Judge Hatter ruled that there was a violation of the Constitution’s guarantee for equivalent protection for all citizens due to the Navy’s actions.

Keith Meinhold was unafraid to allow his testimony to be heard. He had said, "When I was in the military they gave me a medal for killing two men and a discharge for loving one."

The 1996 Defense of Marriage Act

The Supreme Court started to strip away the country’s legacy of prejudice actions against same-sex couples when it eliminated a section of the 1996 Defense of Marriage Act. The 1996 Defense of Marriage Act, by President Clinton, stated that same-sex couples who were married and were recognized by the state would not receive the benefits that heterosexual couples would have.

#LOVEWINS

Obergefell v.s. Hodges

An Ohio resident named Jim Obergefell wanted to be listed as the surviving spouse on his husband’s death certificate, which lead to the Obergefell v. Hodges case. In 2013, Obergefell married his spouse John Arthur, who was suffering from ALS, and passed away on October 2013. After the death of Arthur, Jim filed a lawsuit. Obergefell was joined by several dozen other gay plaintiffs from Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio and Tennessee who were fighting to be able to marry and to have their marriage recognized in every state in the country.

As a result, on June 26, 2015, gay marriage was legalized in all fifty states by the Supreme Court.

How did gay marriage become a constitutional right? Through the observance of human rights activists, public conflicts, and injustice of civil court cases, gay marriage became a constitutional right in all the fifty states.

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