Ancient rome had a lot of geography features that could help with resources and offer protection to it'smajor cities and civiliztions. One of the main geography features is the adriatic sea, some others are the island of sicily, the alps and the tiber river.
The sea located on the northeast of italy gives protection to rome and italy along with a few other civilizations nearby the area, but the sea also pretty much isolates the civilization from trade so the government couldn't have made alliances with other larger civilizations by the northeastern nearby lands like greece and even farther on to china along with a lot more civilizations, without traveling the sea itself.
Island of sicily
The island of sicily is located southwest of the mainland of italy, what seperates it from italy is the strait of messina, also a water source for the civilizations. In italy 500 B.C, when there were multiple big civiliztions that had conflicts due to it's disagreement in way to govern the land in italy, sicily was taken over by partly greeks and partly the carthaginians. The island of sicily was possibly used for trade with africa's civilizations such as mesopotamia and egypt, which was at that time where the carthaginians also dwelled.
Rome was chosen to be a major city because of it's resourcful location, up the streams of the Tiber river. The river gave the romans water to drink and fish to eat, and safe from more dangers of the sea. The tiber river gave merchants and traders a way to get into the land, stop by rome and trade unique objects and culture with the civilization. There are many urban legends or stories of how the city rome was found, but the location always goes back to depending on the tiber river. The tiber river itself was possibly flooding soil near the civilizations which potentially could help farming but also could harm people.
The shape of italy is a boot, and across the top of the boot is the mountain range the alps. The alps are a connection of mountains that seperate the civilizations in italy form the other european civilizations and land. At the time of ancient rome, it was mostly controlled by the etruscans in the south side of the alps. The alps helped defend rome and the civilizations with a landform advantage but also prevents trade routes from wealthy northern civilizations.