The Philippine Revolution
The Philippines had been a Spanish colony from 1512-1898. A revolutionist named Emilio Aguinaldo led a revolt in 1896 in an attempt to take back the Philippine Islands. After two and a half years of fighting the Filipinos found themselves allied with the United States military. Spain and its colonies found themselves fighting a losing war to the US. After the Spanish colonial government surrendered the Philippines to American forces in August of 1898. The Treaty of Paris ended the Spanish American War and the United States purchased the Philippine Islands from the Spanish for twenty million dollars. This was seen as an act of betrayal from the United States and tensions were rising between the US and Filipino forces.
America Becomes Foes With The Philippines
The tension between the US and Filipino forces got worse as of early 1899. The United States who were not eager to accept the Philippines new government and Emilio Aguinaldo being it's first president. Two weeks after his inauguration, private William Grayson of the Nebraska volunteers stationed at San Juan bridge fired a shot at a group of Filipinos as a gesture of resistance against the new found Philippine independence. This sparked the war between Aguinaldo's revolutionaries and the US army resulting in one of the bloodiest wars in US history.
The Proclamation of Independence
How Did the Philippines Gain Independence?
On June 12, 1898, Emilio Aguinaldo with the help of the US, proclaimed Philippine independence from the Spanish regime. A government was set in place in place and a constitution was ratified in order to form the First Republic. However the Spanish made negotiations with US for the sale of the Spanish colonies and the Philippines. It wasn't long before Filipino and American forces clashed. The Filipino forces were determined to fight to the death against an imperialist power who refused to give independence. US President Woodrow Wilson had promised the Philippines independence. Slowly he began to entrust authority to Filipino leaders with the establishment of the Philippine senate via democratic election.
What is the Tyding McDuffie Act?
In 1934, the Tydings Mcduffie Act was ratified. The Congress had promised the Philippines its self government for the islands, the adoption of a constitution, and the complete independence of the Philippine Islands by 1944. However, the act reclassified all Filipinos as aliens for the purposes of immigration and imposed a quota of 50 Filipino immigrants per years. However legislative power was not total and required approval from the United States President. It wasn't until World War II that the quest for Philippine independence came to a halt when the Japanese invasion and occupation occurred.
Significance of 1946 for filipinos
1. 1946 was the year where Filipinos had access to naturalisation to acquire American citizenship. This allowed them to purchase land, vote and petition for their families to help them migrate to the US under family reunification provisions. The expansion of the act provided more and more Filipinos to migrate to the US. The Luce-Celler Bill was signed to increase the limit from 50 to 100 Filipino migrants per year, granted Filipinos and Indians access to naturalisation as a way to prioritise the developing nations' bilateral ties with the US. In addition, the Bill was proven to have been one step closer to a mended partnership.
2. Sakada '46 was reenacted as a migration of Filipino workers to the United States, particularly Hawaii. More than 6000 Filipinos and Filipinas called sakadas, were sent to work in Hawaii's sugar plantations to fulfil worker shortage. The International Longshoreman and Warehousemen Union (ILWU) consisted 0f 20000 Filipinos and other Asians to fight against bias due to the low paid wages received. It was considered the last wave of migration in 1946 right before Independence. The event was renowned for its political freedom towards workers' rights, union recognition, the end to white supremacy, higher wages and many more.
After World War II the second President of the Philippines, Manuel Roxas, was elected on April 1946 for the independent Second Philippine Republic. Independence was then granted July 4, 1996 marked by a formal declaration where the American flag was lowered in Luneta, Manila and the tri-colored Filipino national flag was raised. Now every year from July 4-12, Filipinos all across the world celebrate their independence as well as its revolutionary heroes.