Biotechnology project Parth paTel


Cloning, the process of generating a genetically identical copy of the cell or an organism. Cloning happen all the time in nature, for example when cell replicates itself asexually without any genetic alteration or recombination. Prokaryotes organisms ( lacking organisms a cell nucleus), such as bacteria and yeasts, it creat generally identical duplicates of thremselves using binary fission or budding. In eukaryotes organisms (organisms possessing a cell nucleus) such as humans, all the undergo mitosis, such as skin cell and cells lining the gastrointestinal tract, are clones the only exception are gametes

Reproductive cloning was originally carried out by artificial "twinning, or embryos splitting, which was first performed on a salamander embryo in the early 1900s by German embryolog Hans spemann, later, spemann, who was awarded the nobel prize for physiology or medicine (1935) or his research on embryonic development, theorized about another cloning procedure knonwn as nuclear transfer.

Genetically modified organisms

Gentically modified organisms whose genome has been engineered in the laboratory in order to favor the expression of desired physiological traits or the production of desired biological products. In conversational livestock production, crop farming, and even pet bedding, it has long been the practice to breed select individuals of a species In order produce offspring that have describable trait. In genetic modification, however, recombinant genetic technologies are employed to produce organisms whose Genomes have been precisely altered at the molecular level, usually by the inclusion of genes from unrelated species of organisms that code for traits that would not be obtained easily through conventional selective breeding .

GMOs are produced through using scientific methods that include recombinant DNA technology and reproductive cloning. In reproductive cloning, a nucleus is extracted from a cell of the individual to be cloned and is inserted in the Enucleated cytoplasm of the host egg. The process the result in the generation an offspring that is genetically identical to the donor cell (as opposed to a donor embryo) was a sheep named dolly, born in 1966. Since then number of their animals, including pigs, hourses, and dogs, have been generated by reproductive cloning technology. Recombinant DNA technology, on the other hand, involves the insertion of one or more individual genes from an organism of one species into the DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) of another.

Adult stem cells

Adult stem cell are undifferentiated cells found throughout the body that I divide to replenish dying cellls and regenerate damaged tissues. Also known as so,attic stem cells, they can be found in juvenile as well as adult research into adult stem cells has been fueled by their abilities to divide or self-renew indefinitely and generate all the cell types of the organ from which they originate- potentially regenerating the entire organ from a few cells.

Unlike embryonic stem cells, the use of adult stem cells in research and therapy is not controversial because the production of adult stem cells dos not require the destruction of an embryo adult stem cells can be isolated from the tissue sample obtained from an adult they have mainly been studied in humans and model organisms such as mice and rats.

Embryonic stem cells

Embryonic stem cells are stem cells derived from the undifferentiated inner mass cells that of a human embryo. Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent, meaning they are you able to grow into all derivatives of the three primary germ layers. Embryonic stem cells, devrived from the blastocyst stage early mammalian embryos, are distinguished by their ability to differentiate into any cell types and by their ability to propagate. Embryonic stem cells properties include having a normal karyotypes, maintaining high telomerase activity, and exhaibiting remarkable long-term proliferative potential.

Embryonic stem cells of the inner cell mass are pluripotent, that is, they are able to differentiate to generate lrimarive ectoderm, which differentiates during gastrulation into all derivatives of the three primary germ layer ectoderm endoderm, and mesodern. These include each of the more than 220 cell types in the adult body. Pluripotency distinguishes embryonic stem cells from adult stem cells found in adult, while embryonic stem produce only a limited number of cell type. If the pluripotent differentiation potential of embryonic stem cells could be harnessed in vitro, it might be a means of deriving cell or tissue types virtually to order. would provide a radical new treatment approach to a wide variety of conditions where age, disease, or trauma has led to tissue damage or dysfunction.

DNA fingerprinting and crime scene investigation

This process is used as one means of identification when an attackersor assailant visual identification is possible. DNA- or genetic- fingerprinting relies heavily on the principle that no two individuals share the same genetic code- except for identical twins and statistically those elements of DNA that are examined and used to obtain a match will be unique.

The process of DdnaNA finerprinting was first used during the 1980s and its application was quickly to become that of identification of suspects imvolved in serious crimes including murder. The premise that most attackers or killers will leave some measure of bodily fluid at a crime scene- be it saliva blood, semen or other such fluid- was quickly accepted as common place and it became a staple of many criminal investigations.

PCR and Gel electrophoresis

Gel electrophoresis is a method for separation and analysis of macromolecules (DNA, RNA, and proteins) and their fragments, based on their size and change. It is used in clinical chemistry to separate proteins by charge and or size and in biochemistry and molecular biology to separate a mixed population of DNA and rna fragments by length, to estimate the size of DNA and rna fragments or to separate proteins by charge.

Nuclei acid molecules are separated by applying an electric field to move the negatively charged molecules through a matrix of agarose or other substances. Shorter molecules move faster and migrate farther than longer ones because shorter molecules move faster and migrate farther than longer ones because shorter molecules migrate more easily throughmthe pores of the gel rhisnphenomenon is called sieving. Proteins are separated by charge in agarose because the pores of the gel are too large to sieve proteins.

Plasmids, recombinant DNA and transgenic organisms

Modern genetic technology can be used to modify the genomes of living organisms. This process is also known as genetic engineering. Genes of one species can be modified, or genes can be transplanted from one species to another. Genetic engineering is made possible by recombinant DNA technology, organisms that have altered genomes are known as transgenic. Most transgenic organisms are generated in the laboratory for research purposes.

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