Overview of Quantum Mechanics- A mathematical interpretation of the structure and interactions of matter on the basis of these properties, and that incorporates within it quantum theory and the uncertainty principle. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/quantum%20mechanics
Particle movement through gases- Photocathodes can benefit from a thin protection layer and attain long-term stability. Graphene is potentially a good candidate for such application. We report direct growth of single-layer graphene on single crystal Cu(110) photocathodes using chemical vapor deposition and the effective protection of copper photocathodes with graphene against degradation under atmospheric conditions. Due to the interaction and charge transfer between graphene and copper, the graphene-protected cathodes have 0.25 eV lower work function and 17% higher quantum efficiency at 250 nm compared with bare Cu cathodes. http://aip.scitation.org/doi/abs/10.1063/1.4974738?journalCode=apl
To simplify this article, basically the experiment is showing that when particles move through more than one medium prior to hitting the photo cathodes it improves efficiency. This shows that gases improve/help the travel of particles.
Particle movement through single crystals- A broadband super continuum covering 400–2800 nm in a 20 dB dynamic range is reported in a piece of highly nonlinear, low-dispersion bulk lanthanum glass without employing any lens to focus the pump pulse. The spectrum width obtained in this study is broader than the maximum spectrum width obtained in silica photonic crystal fibers. The filaments and bright conical visible emission patterns of the SC are analyzed. Under optimum pump conditions, an SC conversion efficiency of 75% is obtained. The SC conversion efficiency is confirmed to be stable. Additionally, the relationship between the input peak intensity and the output beam radius is elucidated by simulating the propagation of a Gaussian beam in the bulk lanthanum glass. A 0.20 mm stable laser beam radius at the end of the propagation domain is demonstrated in a certain input peak intensity range. http://aip.scitation.org/doi/abs/10.1063/1.4974005?journalCode=jap
This research article is stating that particles shot through single crystals will broaden when exiting the crystal. This broadening is an increase of 75% efficiency increase. The efficiency is constant within experiments so its a successful experiment.
Particle movement through crystalline solids- Alkali halides are inorganic compounds with high melting points that are usually found in nature as crystalline solids. Due to their importance in industrial and scientific applications such as corrosion, desiccants, nano tube preparation, and also because of their simple structure, they have been widely studied for many years both in experiments and theory. More recently, sodium chloride has been used as a model compound in nucleation from solutions, providing important insights into the crystal nucleation process. However, nucleation from solutions of other salts such as the lithium halides has received little or no attention, and before the nucleation of these salts can be investigated by simulation, it is necessary to clearly understand the phase behavior of computationally feasible models, which have been proposed for lithium halides. It is essential to know the stable crystal structures at the temperature of interest, as well as what structures might be expected for finite-size clusters. The purpose of the present paper is to obtain this essential information. http://aip.scitation.org/doi/full/10.1063/1.4979926
This experiment is showing that the movement of particles through crystalline solids is that the particles behave in a similar way as the ones in the gas. The particles in the gas are moved easier causing less of a energy use to move through an object. The movement of the particles through the crystalline solids not only creates an easier flow of particles but expands them according to the type of crystalline solid it is. The types of crystalline solids are shown below.